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Chapter I. 

4 » 

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, Preliminary remarks. — Birth of Babajee— hit childhood*- his coil* 
nection with Missionaries — discharged on account of unfaith- 
fulness — restored— his conversion. — The obstacles ill the way of 

the conversion of Hindoos. — Babajee'* marriage^.. «*> 13 

. « 

Chapteb II. * 

Babajee removes to Ahmednuggur. — His owrytccount of his con- 
version, and the previous state of his mind — his eagerness for -9 
instruction — his private character — his views of the Sabbath.— 
Indolence characterizes the Hindoos. — Babajee becomes an ex- 
ception. — Babajee' s Christian character delineated by way 
of contrast with that of Brahmuns *.... 29 v 

M Chapter III. 

His tenderness of conscience— docile temper— humility. — A paper 

on self-examination.— His dependence on* God.— Hid conquest 

frOver covetousness. — His letter on this subject to other converts — 

loves the Bible — feels for his countrymen. — Letter to Rev. Mr. 

Anderson. ...:?. 58 

, Chapteb IV- 

His desire to be free from sin, in a letter to the native Church in 
Bombay. — Assurance of hope. — His 'growth in grace. — Letter 
to Mr. Allen — to Mr. and Mrs. Graves — to Dajaba — to Mr. 
*H#aves. t: 79 

* Chapteb V. * » * 

•* ** 
^lindooism debasing te> the mind. — Theological papers illustrating^ v - ' 
"Babajee's mode of thinking. — The occasion of writing them. — * 

Proofs of creation. — The existence of God. — The eternity of %> *' 

God. — Hindoo'notions of God 4 % 

m % a, 




6 - , CONTENTS. 

Chaptbb VI. 

* Treatise! on Justification — Regeneration — Repentance — The Atone- 
ment, and operation of the Spirit. — Necessity of the Holy Spi- 
rit, 117 


Chapth VII. 

r Expedients for purifying the heart — Marks of a tfte Gooroo.— In- 
struction in Sunscrit verse. — Babajee's poetry — four hymns.. . . 134 

Chaptbu VIII. 

" The latter period of his life — he labors more zealously. — Value of 
native assistants. — Organization of the Church. — Elected elder. 
1 —Moral society— rits rules.— His sickness and death. — Reflec- 
tions. — Address to Christians— to Theological Seminaries. — 
Prayer byBabajee ,/...,..., 145 

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ChAPTSB. 1. 

Little known of India in America. — Indian History divided into 
three periods. — Little known of the first period. — Nature of tljeir 
Historical ftecords. — How the Hindoos divide time.— Conquests 
by the Muhumudans — by different nations of Europe — by the 
English..., ; ;..... Wl 

Chaptbb II. 

Account of 'the Deckan — its extent — towns — villages.— Import- 

ance as a missionary field.— Its former History 179 . 

Chaptbb III. 

Account of the Deckan continued — Face of the country, climate, 
seasons, soil, productions. — Walled towns. — Open country. — 
Flocks and herds. — No Roads. — Mode of Conveyance. — 
Rivem.— Chief Towns.— Sketch of Poona .■ , . . 1 93 


0- . Chapter IV. 

Ahmednuggur. — A district of the same name — when formed — taken 
- by the English — its ancient grandeur and present state. — Ruins 
of Mosques, Tombs, Palaces, Gardens, and Aqueducts.*- Forti- 
fications in the Deckan-Hill forts. — Excavated temples. — The , 
moral condition of the country. — An extensive field for Mission- 
ary labor * /. , «. 212 

Chaptm V. ' . * 

Mission at Ahmednuggur. — Its origin— labors.— Death of Mr. Her- , 
vey .-—Removal of Mr. Graves. — First converts. — Three persons 
• # baptized.— Arrival of Mr. Boggs. — First Monday, Jfcn. 1833.— 

Inquiry meeting — baptize four — means employed in the Mission 229 

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* PREFACE, : • * 

The following memoir, wjKch has been ^rawn up in 
'the midst of mfcny Interruptions, and under great disad- 
vantages, is now. submitted to the perusal of the Chris- 
tian public, with "no other claim of merit than that of ex- 
hibiting the character of a Hindoo Brahmun, both before 
and after his heart had* been subdued by divine grade* I 
do it with the, hope that it may encourage the hearts] of 
tbfe friends of Christian mictions to the heathen ; and si- 
lence the cavils of those who demand more tlftn the light 
ojf the sun before they will see. The fortner, I trusty will 
bV able to see in 4he conversion, the labors, the life, tour 
death of this Brahmun, a merciful token of .tfce great 
Head «f the church, that the Brahmunical priesthood, that 
the Hindfid nation, though they have been so long and 
so Apply sunk in all thaf is degrading and disgusting 
in idola^y, may yet be a holy priesthood arid a " JeKght- 
somelfcnd." The latter, I would #rin hope, may be able 
to discern in the same train of circamstaribes such a dis- 
play of the sovereign grace and power of God, 4h0t they 

• may be constrained ^acknowledge that the conversion 
of the heatneais an%vent which the believer in divine* re^ 
velation may most confidently and most rationally expect. 
Let such review the subject once more, and theotsay ifj 
with the divine promises before them, and with a proper 
notion of the divine attributes, they are not chargeable 

*with a more grosa absurdity in disbelieving, than the . 
friends of missions are in believing, that such a desirable 
event can and will take ptac* 

It is not pretended that the case of Babajee is a com- 



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men one. His zeal for the conversion of his countryrtienv 
his energy of character, his disinterestedness, fcis Spirit- 
ual attainments, distinguished him from the converts with 
whom I have had the happiness to be acquainted. What 
has particularly induced me to draw up4he memoir is, the 
belief that Babajee was selected by divine sovereignty as a 
subjetfbon whom Godlnight display the riches of hk grace,, 
for the honor of his name among the heathen, for the con fir- *^ 
mation of Jiis promises to the church, and for the encou- 
. ragemefit of missionaries abroad, and their patrons at home. 

f I must here caution thfereader that he do not expect 
{60 much. The case of Babajee is only extraordinary 
. when taken in connection with the attendant circumstan- 
ces. Indeed in a Christian land he might afford a singu- 
' lar specimen of firmness- and instability, of faith and 
douT& of strictness and laxity, of spiritual joys and de- 
pression, of ardent devotion, deep penitence and humility 
joined with neglect of duty and occasional aberrations. 
Duly to appreciate his 'character, the reader must transfer 
himself for a moment to India. He mtlst there witness 
the practices, the rites and ceremonies of the people, con* 
template Jthe early education and the inveterate habits of 
the heathen, and he will cease to* censure, and begin'to 
admire, the wonderful change which was wrought in the 
subject of the memoix. He will ©*ly wonder that dnrjne. 
grace could so transform ar man. We use great indul- 
gence on^accoont of the force of habit in a Christian 
country. An ijpdel, a profligate, or a miser, is converted* 
His heart is at once right, but many, an old habit) for. a 
long time remains wrong. He may be over righteous to * 
' on* fespeot, bpt. criminally lax in another. * These re-* 
..marks apply to Babajee, but with less force, when" the 
circumstances of his early impressions, and his deeply . 
rooted and erroneous habits are taken* into the account, 
than any oase I have ever known. 

* I have added a Second Parti which contains vatkfeM * 
facts, anecdotes*, remarks, and extracts from other fcutfiocs, 
illustrative of the character, ^customs,' ajid reh'gfoft of the 
Hindoos. This, with the accompanying sketch of the 

• 4 


PEEPACfi. tl 

• - ■ 

Ttatlkan, and the general notices of Indian 1 the notes 
which a^scattered through the whole, will, I flatter my- 
self, interest the Christian inquirer, and also furnish the 
general readme* .who is inquisitive to learn the character 
-and customs of forjftgn inatioiis, with ao much information 
as shall repay him f&r the perusal. * 

Rkebkences' are made from : lhe Memoir tB^Part . 
Second. * After .one half of the matter had gone to the 
press, it was found necessary to bind the work in "two* 
volumes instead of one, as originally designed. Conse- 
quently a derangement has ^curred in regard to the 
references. 'Instead of Chapter VT, Part Second, sea 
Chapter 1, Volume -Second, and so onward. * • 

I have throughout these volumes attempted ao undis. \ 
guised exhibition of Hindooism. This I have, in many-' 
instances, found to be impossible, without sometimes trans- 
gressing those strict rules of delicacy — amounting some- 
times, perhaps, to squeamishness — which; in* our country, 
the present age has prescribed. I' have, as- -far as possi- 
ble, avoided all indelicacy of language. More* thaji (his 
could not be done, without omitting entirely to speak on 
sever&l subjects which, more than any other, go to de- 
velop the real character of Hindooism. I could have . 
said, as most wrjfers onm these subjects have said, that 
• " delicacy forbids* me*' &c. But I have always regarded, 
aucn apologies as miserable Substitutes for the information 
jvhioh I was seeking, concerning the -national «nd the reV- 
' IrgkJhs character of a great nation* of Paggps. The reader 
rieed not, however, suppose that I have unblushingly told 
. ##. \ Thgre still remains behind the curtain all those 
■ things* which " may not *sb much as be named amdng 
v. you." .. ' • 

«■•, * I have like wise, pursued the same course in my ac- 
counts of missionary operations in India, that I have in 
reference to Hindooism.* «My only endeavor, in both 
cases, has been to present a fair picture, without giving 
an undue prominence either to light or shade. 

The reader will excuse the plainness of the dress. 
Circumscribed as has been my intercourse for some years 

■• * 






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past, with those who speak the English language, and 
confined as. I have -been to the use of a foreign tongue, I 
have sensibly. felt thefc meagernes* of my diction. The 
critic will detect o*a»y Inaccuracies. I can only offer 
# the* stereotyped "apology — which nobody will regard. . I 
"present the book afe it is — a^njail tribute which { wish -to 
pay ta the memory of §abajee, and an humble effort to 
"keep the Mission with which, he was connected,' 4bd the 
benighted people to which he belonged, in the eye of the 
. "*Christi*m 'community. May it contribute, in some .humble 
• fegrm* to the advancement of that cause in, which it ha* 
^eea'tnv privilege to be engaged Ibr the last five years. 
And may all the noble efforts which the patrons of that 
Mpsioft are making to evangelize a great 'and interesting, 
l)ut a* wicked and idolatrous nation, bs abundantly blessed^ 
**. " * ** ' * FT R. 

: • ••• New-York, March' 4,1836. '* 

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latrodnctory remarks.— Birth of Babajee—his childhood— hit eon* 
nectioD with Missionaries— discharged for unfaithfulness— restored 
— faia conversion.— Obstacles in the wijr of the conversion of 
Hindoos.— Babajee'a marriage. 

That cunningly devised feble, which has tot 
so many centuries infatuated the millions of India) 
is called Hindooisoi. It is also, and more appropri- 
ately, termed Brahmunism ; as it is a system of eon- 
emmrnate priestcraft, taking its name from the Brah* 
tmms, who are the legal priests of the country. The 
p r iesth ood exalt themselves above every other easts 
of their countrymen, and would fain have you be* 
lieve that even the kkigs and the princes of the earth 
nre their inferiors. The extraordinary pretensions 
of the Brahmuns of the present day, their arrogance, 
their subtlety, their avarice, their doplicity, their 
selfishness, their pretended learning, and their real 
ignorance, are, however, but the shadows of die 
same unlovely qualities, which, many centuries ago, 
prompted the Brahmuns of India to frame and to 
palm upon the wretched people of this country their 
present system of religion. This system is a str*- 



pendous monument of what the genius of man is 
capable of effecting, when left to the guidance of un- 
assisted reason. Here the rationalist and the infidel 
may gaze and admire the fabric which the human 
mind can build without the aid of Divine revelation ! 
We will freely concede to him that this mighty 
structure is the legitimate product of human skill. 

Hindooism, from the foundation to the top-stone, 
is one cold system of selfishness. The ultimate ob» 
ject of all is the aggrandizement of the priesthood ; 
and the grand means by which this is accomplished, 
is, the mental thraldom of the people. Their sacred 
books, which contain the details of this astonishing 
system of imposture, and which have been written 
with consummate ingenuity, and diabolical skill, 
are locked up in a language unknown and forbidden 
to the people, and may only be read and explained 
by the Brahmuns. All the learning of the nation 
is monopolized by these same priests ; and the other 
castes are either prohibited, or, as Jkr as possibly 
prevented) from aspiring to the "dangerous pre- 
eminence" of learning. Custom and caste and su* 
perstition have been made, by the subtle priests, t$ 
conjoin in discouraging all attempts, which the com- 
mon people might be disposed to make, to disen- 
thral themselves from their hereditary ignorance. 
And the usages of caste, again, as well as prejudice 
prevent the Hindoos from travelling; and conse- 
quently cut them off from all the advantages which 


tbey might otherwise gain by visiting foreign nations, 
mad comparing other institutions with their own. 

And nothing, perhaps, tends more to perpetuate 
the mental bondage of the Hindoos, than the igno- 
zance, and the consequent degradation, which Brah- 
munisnt has entailed on the ft male sex. We very just* 
Ijr attribute to the female part of onrcommnnity a great 
abare of the mental exaltation, the refinement, and 
the active benevolence which bless our society. But 
w India woman is a blank. She exerts no influence 
on Society, nor can she ever exert any under the 
present state of things. A long and continued de- 
gradation has rendered the Hindoo woman unquali- 
fied to share in the intercourse of the other sex ; and 
iron-handed prejudice forbids her to become qualified. 
A sad experience has so long taught her that she is 
inferior, and, by nature, degraded, that she now 
seems fully to believe that she is so, and submits, 
without a murmur, to be treated as a being of an 
inferior species. 

These things, without mentioning innumerable 
other instances, which might be adduced as reasons 
for the mental degradation of the Hindoos, exert a 
powerful influence* to bring all things in subser? 
viency to the Brahmuns. The more the religious 
system of this people is examined, the more the con- 
viction will force itself on us that the Aggrandize- 
ment, and the pecuniary advantage of the priesthood, 
are the ultimate objects of the whole. These senti- 


meals am every where taught in their sacred booing 
and constitute a principal part of the instruction* 
which the Brahmnns give to the people. 

In their domestic and their social capacity, 
nothing can be done without a Brahtnun ; and m 
Brahman cannot work without a fee, or a test No 
one but a Brahmun can determine on tacky and 
unlucky days, of which they have an endless num- 
ber, or explain signs and omens, dreams and visions* 
No one but a Brahmun may read and explain the 
sacred books; nor may a person of any other cast* 
even touch these books. And no one but a Brahman 
may officiate in any- of those ten thousand rites and 
Ceremonies which are palmed on the poor Hindoo, 
and which go to make up a great part of Brafaama- 
ism. All offerings made to the gods are appropriated 
by these avaricious priests; and the giving of presents, 
and the distribution of money lor Brahmuns, is the 
most effectual way of propitiating the ftvor of the 
gods, and of procuring the pardon of sin. Penances 
and pilgrimages are enjoined : but the most severe 
penance may be commuted for a specified present 
to the Brahmuns ; and the grand object of the pil- 
grimage is, in the mind of the priest, to feed and en- 
rich a set of idle Brahmuns, who officiate at these 
holy places. 

The Brahmun, again, is revered as a god. He 
is addressed and worshipped as a god. The peo- 
ple fall down before him, make him offerings, and 


lick the wry dust of his feet. They believe that the 
Brahmun may, on account of his righteousness and 
by means of his enchantments, control both gods 
and men. 

Hence wiU appear the pre-eminence which is 
every where accorded to the Brahmun. In all 
things he domineers oyer the minds of the ignorant 
atmltitude, taking every possible advantage which 
his priestly character allows him, and abusing such 
advantages to the extent of his power. He works 
on the fears of the people ; he turns every supersti* 
don and prejudice to his own account ; he checks 
•very innovation, and every improvement, by the 
imposition of unbending custom and caste ; he en- 
forces his injunctions, and accomplished his will and 
selfish purposes, under the insidious garb of religion: 
The pride and dissimulation, the' intrigue and dis- 
honesty of a Brahmun are proverbial! even among 
a people who are almost, if not altogether, destitute 
of all those moral virtues, which, in a Christian 
land, w* regard as indispensable to the existence of 
the social compact. 

With the aid of these remarks, and of the reflec- 
tions which they will naturally suggest, the reader 
will be the better able to appreciate the following ao< 
count of the conversion and the religious character 
ef a Hindoo priest Babajee, the subject of this me- 
moir, was a Brahmun. I knew him well before his 
conversion, and can assure the reader that no excep* 



lion can be made in his favor on account of his 
moral character. He was as learned and as ignorant, 
as false and as subtle as his brethren. He was as de- 
void of moral rectitude, and as reckless of the happi- 
ness and of the natural rights of his fellow-beings, as 
any Brahman in India. Nor was there any thing ia 
his childhood, or in his early education, thai would 
seem to have prepared him for the extraordinary 
change which afterwards took place. 

Babqjee was born in the year 1791, at Rug- 
gothna, in the southern Concon. We know but littls 
of his childhood. His mother, he once told me, sacri* 
fieed herself on the funeral pile of her husband* 
when he was but four yean old : and thus be wai 
at this tender age deprived even of that miserable 
guidance which heathen parentage may afford Ba- 
bajee had an only brother, younger than himself; 
who became a religious mendicant The family 
right of inheritance, of course, fell to Babajee. How 
this passed from his bauds, or what became of it, I 
know not. Probably he waa educated fiam the 
avails of the estate. 

About the year 1890, he entered the service of 
the Rev. Mr. Crawford, of the Scottish Mission, as a 
pundit, or teacher of the Mahratha language. He 
remained there two or three years ; and there he 
probably heard, for the first time, the way of salva- 
tion by Jesus Christ. As might be expected from a 
person of his naturally ingenuous mind, he was, at 


times, not only persuaded of the foUy mid insuffi- 
ciency of Hiodooism, bat be was partially con- 
vinced of the truth and excellency of Christianity. 
He sometimes appeared penitent, and wept on ac- 
count of sin. This Btate of mind seldom continued 
for any .great length of time. His relapses, however, 
appeared rather towards a slate of infidelity, than 
back, to idolatry, lie came to Bombay about Ike 
year 1823, and from that time to his death he was 
from time to time employed by the American Mis- 

While in connection with the Mission, he pos- 
sessed, and to seme extent improved, the means of 
beoopaing father acquainted with Christianity. Ha 
sometimes manifested compunctions of conscience^ 
which, as will appear in the sequel, from an account 
given by himself) were real and sincere. An eyent 
occurred in May, 1828, which, no doubt, had a con- 
siderable influence in opening his eyes to the absur- 
dity, as well as the tyranny, of Hiodooism. The 
Mission, at that time, had made it an indspensabla 
condition of service that their pundits, school-teach- 
ers, and all in their service, should rise and remain 
standing during the time of prayer, at the chapel. A 
combination was formed to resist the regulation, and 
all but Babajee refused to comply with it He said 
there was nothing in the regulation improper in 
itself, and nothing contrary to the Hindoo sacred 
books; and although threatened with the loss of 


caste in case of compliance, he promised to rise and 
stand on the following Sabbath. He fulfilled his 
promise. This brought down on his head a storm 
of Brahminical indignation. Council after ^council 
was held to condemn and cast him out. In one of 
these assemblies, as he afterwards told me, where 
there were present not less than a thousand Brah- 
muns, he appealed to their reason and common 
sense, and pointed out to them the absurdity, as well 
as the unkindness of their persecuting him with such 
severity, for doing what was neither improper in it* 
selfj nor contrary to the requisitions of their shastras, 
nor to the usages of the people in die worship of their 
own gods. He also declared in that assembly, that 
there were many Brahmuns there present, with 
whom he had actually eaten beef, and drunken 
brandy, and caroused for whole nights together. For 
each flagrant transgressions, these Brahmuns had 
not been cast out, or even censured, but were esteem* 
ed as priests of the first respectability, while he was 
arraigned without the charge of any such transgres- 
sion. Eating beef, and drinking brandy, are things 
for which a Brahmun ought (even according to the 
Hindoo shastras) to lose caste, and for which he 
would be considered an outcast, if it were known to 
the people. He here referred to a private society of 
Brahmuns, and others of high caste, who drink and 
revel together without distinction of caste. 

The indignation of this profane priesthood had 

now •risen to to violent a pitch against this defi 
less Brahman, and the atonements which tbey re- 
quired of him weee of so humiliating a nature, that 
the Mission thought it advisable for flabajee to leave 
Bombay, until die violence of the storm should pan 
over. He was accordingly, Jbr a time, sent ink) the 
Deckan. After his return, little appears to hare 
been said on the -subject. He was permitted to puiw 
aue his occupations without molestation. The un- 
warrantable and unreasonable treatment which he 
had received, undoubtedly, for ever afterwards gave 
him a disgust for many of the fooleries of caste, and 
opened his eyes to the shameless corruption of the 

** priesthood. No salutary effect, however, seems to 
have been produced on his heart 

When I arrived, in the spring of 1831, 1 found 
him out of employ. He had been discharged on 
account of unfaithfulness to business, arising from 
his profligate habits. Mr. Allen, who discarded him, 
deeming the punishment inflicted by the dismissal 
sufficient to insure his better conduct, recommended 
him to me as a Mahratha teacher. For some time, 
I found him attentive to his business ; and he was 
always anxious to have me make rapid progress in 
die acquisition of the language. Though not unfre* 
quently obliged to admonish him for irregularity, 
Mid sometimes to rebuke him for advancing infidel 

. sentiments, I could not but admire him for his kind, 
open, and ingenuous heart. In October, 1831, when 



•bout to leave Bombay, to make a long tour en tb* 
continent, I discharged Babajee, having previously 
determined not to employ him after my return, un- 
ites I could have some reasonable hope that he 
would serve me more faithfully than he had done 
for a few months past. At this time Mr. Graves 
returned from the Neilgherry Hills. Babajee now 
teemed awakened from his lethargy. The repetition 
of the instruction which he had so often heard from 
Mr. Graves, and the renewed appeals which were 
now made to his conscience, sunk deep into hie 
heart The instruction was accompanied by the 
Holy Ghost, and he was soon brought to the foot of 
sovereign mercy, to plead for pardon. The follow, 
ing letter from Mr. Graves will present in a more 
correct and striking manner than it is possible for 
me to do, the circumstances of his conversion. 

My Dxak Beothir Rbao 

I have long neglected to write you respecting Babajee, My 
health is my excuse. 

There was an account of Babajee's conversion, perhaps suffi- 
ciently full for your purpose, written by myself, and published in the 
Oriental Christian Spectator, I think in October, 1831. I have not 
a copy by me ; but you no floubt have it. From the often repeated, 
and long continued instructions which Babajee had received, in our 
mission, and previously in that of the Scottish mission, he was often 
the subject pf very serious impressions. He sometimes stifled and 
concealed these ; for he knew that his course of life, as well as his 
idolatry, would condemn him; and he used often to say, that the 
Christian religion was a very severe and strict one. He alluded 
especially to its cognizance of the thoughts and motives, as well as 
the external conduct. He had many convictions in favor of the 
Christian religion ; and the more, because of its purity, and his own 
conscious impurity. Yet, on some occasions, he reasoned against it 
most stubbornly. At other times, he was overwhelmed with tears, 
and acknowledged his obligations to embrace Christianity. On one 
occasion he waa so deeply impressed, that, with his consent and 


Jffcb, I prayed with and for ban. He knelt, end was deeply affected. 
Yet those impressions subsided, or were subdued by bis opposition 
to tbem ; so that he seemedmnfeeling ; and I had almost entirely 
relinquished the hope of his conversion. But not knowing what 
Blight prosper, after my return from the Neilgherry Hills, when he 
called on me, I felt disposed to address him seriously. He- seemed 
▼cry sedate, and I felt unusual freedom and pity. But the substance 
of all that I pressed upon his consideration was, the importance off 
deciding at that time, for eternity, what religion he would positively 
choose. "Have you fully and. finally, for eternity, decided respecting 
Che Christian religion ? Are you sure you shall have no wish or 
occasion to reconsider." Do attend to it now, in such a manner that 
you would be willing to have the decision unalterable for ever. You 
nave eternity before you ; you may cause yourself joy or sorrow to 
all eternity, as you fix your decision right or wrong. I entreat yon 
to decide, so that you wnl not wish to change the decision for ever. 
And then practice cheerfully and heartily, according to that decision. 
There is a right and a wrong. Search them out — choose the good 
and refuse the evil. Tour opportunity to decide favorably to your 
interest, will soon certainly close for eternity. You cannot change 
after death. You are now to act for an interminable time. Do not 
miss." Such, as well as I can recollect, was the substance of my 
address. He seemed rather serious, and disinclined to say any 
thing of consequence in reply ; and presently took his leave. But 
that night he could not sleep. He felt persuaded that the Christian 
religion was true, and that he bad lived in a constant violation of the 
dictates of his conscience, in his idolatry and wickedness : and he 
resolved that, whatever might be the consequences, the next day 
should fix for ever his separation from both. Accordingly, in the 
morning, he left every thing but a drinking vessel, which he brought 
with him to our house. When he tame, he cheerfully said that bis 
mind was then made np, according to my advice. I was scarcely 
prepared for such a declaration from him. and could scarcely under* 
stand or believe it. However, I at length gave him my hand, after 
hearing a little explanation, and invited urn into a private room, 
where I prayed with him, that his. mind might be solemnised, ana 
that he might understand and feel what he professed to do. After 
me he prayed on his knees* in the first person singular ; acknowledg- 
ing that he was worthy to be utterly and eternally rejected, yet 
entreating God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to receive him on 
the ground of grace in Christ alone, and to purify and accept him 
lor ever. Such a solemn self-dedication and confession astonished 
me, as totally beyond my anticipation, .and such as I had scarcely, 
If ever witnessed. I could not but think it sincere. He immediately 
relinquished caste, and all his connections, expecting nothing but re- 
proach, as he afterwards often said, and not looking for any earthly 
good whatever. But you know how happily he was disappointed, 
by the softening down of the enmity of his friends, and their convic- 
tion, to some extent at least, that he was sincere and cordial, if not 
in the right For my own part, such was the fullness of my con- 
viction of his sincerity, that I dared not long defer his baptism, and 
felt myself called upon to admire the change, and praise the Lord on 
his benaJt And his serious and steady perseverance afterwards* 



gave me no occasion to change my opinion. I still feel myself catted 
upon to acknowledge and admire the visibility of the Divine hand, 
in effecting so obvious and great a change. May the Lord multiply 
such trophies of grace, and receive ail the praise. 

On my return from the continent, after an ab- 
sence of five weeks, I welcomed Babajee as a bro* 
tber in Christ. The grace of God, in so suddenly 
arresting this profligate Brahmun, and bringing him 
at once so cordially to renounce idolatry and all its 
usages, and to embrace Christianity, seemed too 
marvellous for human credibility. He had now 
been baptized, and admitted to full communion in 
the church. This, in almost any case among the 
heathen, would be regarded as hasty, and a most 
hazardous experiment But the evidence that a 
work of grace was begun in his heart, appeared so 
obvious, that Mr. Graves, whose experience of the 
duplicity of the native character would almost, m 
any other instance, have led him to hesitate, appro- 
ved of his immediate reception. It is remarkable, 
considering the tenacity with which the Hindoos 
cling to the usages of caste, how easily he at once 
renounced them, and never after seemed to have 
any struggle on the subject. 

No one acqtiainted with the force of early habits, 
will be astonished to be told that it is not the busi- 
ness of months, and, in many cases, not even of 
years, to enable a native convert to divest himself 
entirely of all those ten thousand superstitions and 
absurdities which he imbibed with his mother's 



ttrilt Notions about lucky and unlucky days, 
omens, signs, dreams, ghosts, hobgoblins; things 
pure and impure, ablations, penances, usages of 
caste, and an innumerable list of minor observances, 
as inconceivable by the Christian, as common and 
inveterate with the Hindoo, are engrafted on the 
mind from his earliest infancy. To think to eradi- 
cate them by human expedients, is to think to form 
a new creation. No one properly acquainted with 
the Hindoo character, will affirm that a Hindoo 
may, by mere human efforts, ever be brought to 
relinquish what has, by education and habit, become 
his nature. Poverty, which in this country means 
the want of those things which are absolutely neces* 
sary for mere subsistence, pressing him on one 
hand, or avarice exciting him on the other, may in* 
due* him, externally, to cast off his superstitions, and 
to feign a compliance with the sentiments and 
usages of those from whom he hopes to gain the 
object of his desires ; but a cordial abandonment of 
his own religion, not to say the conversion of his 
heart, and a radical change from those usages, prac- 
tices, and superstitions, which are alike repugnant 
to reason, common sense, and Revelation, can only 
be effected by the almighty power of God. Over* 
looking such agency, it is no wonder that so many 
nominal Christians, and none more than those who 
are best acquainted with the character of the Hindoo, 
affirm that the Hindoos cannot be converted to Chris- 



tlanity, not any Radical change be produced among 
them. Leaving Divine omnipotency out of the 
account, my opinion will fully coalesce with theirs* 
But once bring into the account the idea of Divine 
agency, which I here most fully and joyfully admit, 
and the sure promises of God, on which I rely as the 
only basis on which we can ground the conversion 
of the Hindoos, and the question is in an instant 
changed from one of entire despondency, to one of 
the most sanguine hope. We then at once see that 
they can be brought, not only to conform to the 
external rites of Christianity, but to exemplify its 
virtues in uprightness of intention, refinement of 
feeling, purity of heart, and holiness of life. 

It is lamentable, and ought to humble us before 
God, and make us feel our dependence on sovereign 
grace, to confess that such instances of conversion 
have as yet been extremely rare in this part of India : 
still, enough has been done to convince the missionary 
and his patrons, that the grace of God is abundantly 
sufficient to overcome every obstacle which the de- 
pravity of men, in its cunning devices, has thrown 
in the way of the conversion of this people. Babajee 
may, I trust, without presumption, be presented to 
the friends of missions, as a very striking example 
of this. The obstacles, in his case, were as great as 
are to be looked for any where. Prom his infancy, 
he had been acquainted with all the ordinary means 
of licentiousness and corruption which are to be 

thb mraoo's coHVxssioif. ftt 

met with among a most licentious and corrupt 
people; and tot the last ten yean he had beea 
acquainted with what, in reference to the hcathoo, 
Johns a no less barrier to the prevalence of Chris- 
tianity, the ungodly lives of Europeans. He saw the 
vast majority of the representatives of Christianity 
in India, indulging in sins which put to shams the 
heathen themselves. He could see no connection 
between the pare doctrines of the Gotipel, and the 
ungodly walk of the greater part of those who pro- 
fess to be the disciples of its Author ; and, therefore, 
very naturally concluded that Christianity, like the 
system of the Yadas, is some Utopian notion of vir- 
tue, got up by a designing priesthood, but not de- 
signed to be reduced to practice, except by a few 
ascetics. He had also seen that the vast numbers 
of Hindoos and Mussulmans who have heretofore 
been converted to Christianity by the Romanists, 
differ but little from their heathen neighbors, except, 
having thrown off the few restraints which caste 
and superstition imposed, they enjoy greater license 
to indulge in all kinds of vice. None of these things 
had escaped the discerning eye of Babajee, One 
day when I was urging on him the claims of Chris- 
tianity, he replied, " Your system is very good, and 
so is ours, if stripped of corruptions and additions, 
but nobody practices according to either system. 
You say, one God only must be worshiped, and so 
do we. In order to enable an ignorant people to 


worship this invisible God, whose greatness thsy 
cannot comprehend, end whose parity they cannot 
appreciate, we introduce inferior deities to aid them ; 
tat the great majority of Christians are satisfied 
without worshiping any thing." His conclusion 
was, that the world is extremely depraved; and so 
deep is the disease, that no remedy can reach it. 
Such having been his circumstance*, and such the 
state of his mind, the conclusion is forced cm ma 
that Qabajee was, through the free and sovereign 
grace of God, a chosen vessel of mercy, on which 
God designed from the beginning, to " make known 
the riches of his glory," for the confirmation of his 
promises, for the encouragement of missionaries, 
and for a pledge of salvation to the Hindoos. 

Previous to his conversion, Babajee had been 
Hving for several years, illicitly, with one of those 
unfortunate females, who, having lost their affian- 
ced husbands in childhood, are forbidden. by the 
laws of caste again to marry* These women, 
though prohibited to marry, are, in many instances, 
taken by Brahmuns, and treated in every respect 
as wives. In most cases, however, they become 
common prostitutes. Hence it is, no doubt, that 
the terms widow, and prostitute, are synonymous* 
Babajee and Audee (the name of the woman,) 
lived together with a mutual understanding that 

* See Chap. VL Part II. 


each should perform the relative duties of hut* 
hand and wife ; and, as far as it is known, they cher- 
ished for each other as strong a conjugal affection 
as is to be expected in the state of society in which 
they lived. On embracing Christianity, he irnma* 
diately felt the impropriety of remaining in his pre* 
sent condition with this woman. He therefore com- 
municated to Mr. G. the particulars of the connec- 
tion, and requested that he might now be lawfully 
married to her. Having ascertained that such was 
the wish of both parties, the Mission thought fit to 
comply with the request; and they were accord- 
ingly married, in December, 1832, in the American 
Chapel, at Bombay. 


Babajee removes to Ahmednuggur.— His own account of his con- 
version, and the previous state of his mind. — His eagerness for 
instruction — his private character— his views of the Sabbath. — 
Indolence every where characterizes the Hindoo. — Babajee be- 
comes an exceptipn.-!-His character delineated by way of con* 
trast with that of common Brahmuns. 

The day following his marriage, Babajee left 
Bombay with his now lawfully wedded wife, to 
accompany the brethren who had been set apart to 
form a mission at Ahmednuggur. He now appeared 
peculiarly animated with the prospect which lay 
before him. The Deckan, till recently closed against 



all missionary labor, now opened to him a field of 
new adventure. His only wish, from this time, 
seemed to be* that he might live for the good of his 
countrymen, and, in every possible way, lighten the 
burdens, and strengthen the hands, and encourage 
the hearts, of those devoted to the welfare of the 
heathen. The reader will here be more interested 
to learn from Babajee himself, what were his views 
and feelings, and what the struggles of conscience 
against the heart, for some time before he resolved 
to embrace the offer of salvation as made known in 
the Gospel. The following paper was written some 
weeks after his arrival at Ahmednuggur ; and, as it 
illustrates more accurately than I can do, the pro- 
cess which the mind of a Brahmun , must pass 
through, before it can reach the goal of truth, it is 
inserted. Like most of his written papers, it bears 
no other title than 

" Babajee, a servant of Jesus Christ 19 
" This is the controversy which I had with my 
mind before I became a Christian. I first reasoned 
with my mind thus : O, my soul ! art thou sinful or 
not? Then the soul replied, yes, I am sinful, and 
am still committing sin. Then, I said, if thou 
remainest in sin, what will be thy reward ? My soul 
said, if I die in sin, I must suffer punishment in 
hell for ever. Then, continued I, does it seem good 
to thee to endure eternal punishment? The soul 
repVied, it does not seem good. If it does not, what 



then art thou doing to escape the just recompense 
of sin ? Truly, thought I, by walking according to 
the Hindoo religion, I am only worshiping and ser- 
ving idols, and calling over the names of Rain, 
Vishnoo, Kristna, and of the multitude of our other 
deities. But what does this profit? This is bat a 
system devised by man, while the religion ordained 
by God, must be for all men. What ! replied my 
mind, are all men of one caste? Is this what thou 
meanest? Think not so. But, discarding such a 
thought, I again reasoned — suppose there be eigh- 
teen castes* of men ; be itso : of what caste then is 
my soul ? There is no caste to spirit. ' Caste can 
only apply to the body. While in the body only, I 
am of the Brahmun caste ; and to obtain salvation 
by Htndooism, I must walk according to the religion 
which God has given to this caste/ Do I fulfil the 
requirements of our own sacred books? Do I, as re- 
quired in our shastras, arise before the sun, go 
abroad into the field, and attend to the demands of 
nature as prescribed by our shastras ?t Supposing 
this properly performed, do I, at the specified time, 

* The Hindoos believe there axe eighteen castes of men in the 
East who wear the turban, called uthra pugard jat (eighteen castes 
of turban menh also eighteen castes of Europeans called topes 
walla (hat men). 

t Delicacy forbids the naming of the rales which are detailed in 
the Hindoo shastras on this subject. The time, distance, position, 
manner of cleansing themselves, &c, &c, are all among their rati- 
gious rites. And, if a Hindoo's salvation were suspended only on 
these requirements, he would fail. Now, when it is considered that 
these are but one of a thousand, how can the deluded wretch expect 
to be saved by his law 1 

83 mn of bkahmuhb. 

(before the rising of the sun,) and agreeably to the 
rales, perform the sacred bathing, and offer the 
appointed oblation to the sun ? This I do not. Am 
I not then found guilty, my own shastras being* 
judges? I am, indeed, found wanting. And ano- 
ther question I asked myself; is it any where writ- 
ten in the Brahmun's shastras that a man may com- 
mit adultery ? No ; it is nowhere thus written con- 
cerning any one. Now, O, my soul ! thou art this 
moment living in the practice of adultery, and 
knowest thou not that it is a sin ? 

" I indeed knew it to be sin ; and that in commit- 
ting it, I was fallen (that is, defiled, according to 
the Hindoo law). But all Brahmuns commit adul- 
tery, and no one regards them polluted on that ao 
count ; why then am I defiled ? The case seems to 
be this : if they were to pronounce him who eomr 
mits lewdness an apostate, and outcast, they would 
condemn themselves. But this is certain, that who* 
ever breaks one of the Divine commands is fallen in 
the sight of God ; and the consequence of this trans- 
gression is punishment in hell. Let me not share 
with him. I must then walk according to the shas- 
tras. But this I cannot do. I am sinful from my 
birth, and cannot therefore work out a proper right- 
eousness. A man may, for once, with much effort, 
fulfil the requirements of our shastras. Still he does 
no more than his duty ; gets no merit by this, while 
he would contract much guilt by neglecting them. 


Moreover, if from this time forward I fulfil the re- 
quirement* of the shastras, nevertheless on account 
of past tra n sgre s s ions, theft is past guilt By what 
means will this be pardoned? By the worship of 
Bam, Vishnoo, Kristna, and all those called incaiw 
nations, future punishment can never be escaped* 
Concerning these incarnations, I have one woid td 
my ; let my mind understand it (Here follows a 
Sanscrit eholok.) The meaning of which is, " all 
those incarnations did not take place for the protec- 
tion of the saints only, but for the destruction of sin- 
ners." Am I a saint? If I am a true saint then I 
may be saved by them; but if a sinner, then they 
will destroy me : therefore, it cannot benefit sinners 
to worship -these gods. Some will say, " true, these 
incarnations were for the purpose of destroying the 
wicked, (the enemies of the gods,) and must be wor- 
shiped to appease them." All we know of them is 
that they wBl destroy all who are not saints. Be* 
sides, I am a worshiper of idols ; and it is said by 
some that idolatry is a heinous sin before God. An 
image is not God. As the Deity exists in the water, 
tree, and stone, so he exists in the image. But there 
is no power or faculty in ati idol. He cannot speak; 
has feet, but cannot walk ; hands, but cannot handle; 
eyes, but cannot see. Hence, it appears evident, that 
by ceremonies prescribed in the shastras; by the 
worshiping of idols; by vain repetitions of muntras; 
by holy bathing ; by religious austerities, and such 


like expedients, freedom from sin, and Messednest 
after death can never be obtained. What then shall I 
do? Who will rescue me from this ocean of sin? 
Alas ! nothing that I can do can save me from the 
punishment of sin. 

" When my mind was thus distressed, I resolved 
to cast aside every system of religion, forsake the 
world, and flee to a gooroo.* I then employed a 
Brahmun, by the name of Wasadeo, as my gooroo ; 
of him I learnt the muntras.t These I repeated no 
less than three thousand times. For a time my 
mind was satisfied. But soon I began to reason* 
with myself again. Is my gooroo without sin ? If 
not, how can a sinful gooroo save a sinful disciple % 
What now shall I do ? Where shall I find a sinless 
gooroo? Alas! alas! among the whole human 
race there is not a sinless man to be found. For all 
men from their birth ate sinful. Then I brought 
to mind the instructions I had heard, how that the 
Almighty, all* wise, ever just, merciful and holy God, 
in order to make an atonement for the sins of men, 
had took on him the nature of man, and become in* 
carnate in the world. The name of this incarnation 
is the anointed Saviour, Jesus Christ He now sits 

* A gooroo is a'spiritual JuicTe, and with the Hindoos a sanctifie? 
and saviour. Almost every man employs his gooroo. According to 
the Hindoo books, he must be sinless. 

t Muntras are charms, or incantations, which are muttered over by 
the Brahmuns. By these they pretend to bring the Divinity into an 
image, and do various other things equally probable. See Chapter 

SBBKi THE saviootl 85 


at the right hand of God, making intercession for all 
who repent and believe on his name. While in this 
world he endured, for more than thirty years, many 
sufferings for the sins of the people. He obeyed the 
Divine commands, and for the sake of man, he, who 
was Almighty, became of no reputation, and gave 
his life for sinners. The wicked people charged 
him with fault, but no guilt was found in him. He 
was altogether holy, and could therefore make an 
atonement for sin. He is the way, and by him only 
can I enter the kingdom of bliss. It is said in onr 
shastras that the good works of a sardoo (saint) are 
his way to heaven. But what ate described to be 
tbe marks of a sardoo ? They are these — equity, 
4ompas8K>n, self-denial, freedom from anger, and dis- 
regard of caste. But such a man is not to be found; 
for all men are deceitfol and deceived, covetous, 
lascivious. Therefore, O my soul, despise thyself, 
' and flee for rt fuge to God, the Saviour Jesus Christ, 
and he will make yon worthy by the Holy Spirit. 
Hast thou ever heard of him of whom I now speak ? 
Yes, I have often heard of him, and read his shas- 
tras. And what do you think of him ? I believe the 
Christian shastras to be true, and Jesus Christ the 
true Saviour of the world. Why not then believe 
on him ? Should 1 believe on him and be baptized, 
should I not be defiled ? According to the Chris- 
tian shastras the things which defile a man, are these 
—evil thoughts) murders, adulteries, fornication, 


theft, lying, deceit, and such Idee things. By loving 
unholy objects, my mind has become polluted. 

" I have despised the goodness of God, whieh 
should have led. me to repentance. What shall 1 
now do to be saved 1 I then determined that I would 

- renounce all worldly hope, cast off the fear of the 
people, repent, and flee to Jesus Christ, and cry with 
my whole heart to God the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, three in one, that he would have mercy on 
me. I fully resolved to go to Jesus, to be baptised 
and partake of the Lord's Supper, and to keep my- 
self from sin. I then prayed to the living God, and 
communed with my own heart. I resolved to go to 
Graves Sahib, tell him my whole heart, and ask 
baptism. I begged that I might remain with him, 
as I did not like to go to my own dwelling. After 
having examined me, and tried me for a few days, 
his Christian brother Hervey Sahib baptized me, in 
the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, three in one : and the same day, I partook of 
the Lord's Supper. In the good instructions which 
Graves Sahib then gave me, he said, think not that 
your work is done, for the obligation under which 
you are now laid to labor for your countrymen is 
very great From that time I have examined my* 
self, to see if I walked according to the Gospel. If 
I find myself acting or thinking contrary to my 

' Saviour and my God, I repent, forsake it, and ask 
forgiveness. When I do right, I know this is through 

■ ' f * \' ' y 

_ sffniss rti biSlk. * \ . jy 

tiie affluence of the Holy Spirit, and forAw, I thank 
God. *Mdi|$ver, I j&ive myself in* t£e "hand* of 
Gjlfl, through the mercjy <ff Je^te Clajfct. n . I" 

Prom Jiffs arrivatln Ahmednwggur, Babajee b*. 
cahie ^a* efficient member *in the- lesion. He had 
already acquired a Considerable knowledge of the 
Scriptures ; m3eed, hi^oss^^ed * pretty good iheo/e- 
tical acquaintance with Christianity before he knew 
its spiritual intefttf But now he soughtDivine assist* 
ance, and gave him&lf iftp to seek the truth »r£- 
vealOT through gfesus Christ. He seitaft on every 
new truth to which his mind was direct*^ or which 
discovered its&f £o him in his TehdTi^or trmdiftrtfoo, 

♦rffritfi an ftvfftity truly astonishing. ' It was gttltfy- 
ing to see ^nth what delight he would hang on year 

" lips, while relating to bita some potttftt of Sacred 

' B&tfory which Vd not yet been transiaWfr; ' dr HHis- 
(mtingBon» particular «oetrine#rith wbfthhe wfts 
but partially, of ntot at all acquainted f qr wfille di- 
recting histaind to soma eminent examples of Chris- 
tian- JtJbittidrord^^ He grasped the tnrih 
Vitlf^ecuHar eagelfeess, and seldom . would * bIIow 

^ evert* a* suggestion, or an inddetotA mention of any 
one trulh, wh4h he dicfnot wc^l nndematKi, to pa*, 

> jtitl he*tod, by further inquiry, mot only made him- 
self master of it, tet made it subservient to his own 

.benefit by a setf-applioation. Nor would he stop 

here. He, «or<e peculiarly than any person I have 

ever met, had the happy talent, or rather, I should 

• 4 





88 ♦ HIS FKIVATB~€tf*RJ«TEll. 

say, the jiyaftabie spiritual gift, 4t comfifcnicfcting 
to, others, ao£ of enforcing on their ..consciences, 
every truth which b* had himself acquired. 
. Inkis demeanor, a* a man or a* a Christian, lie 
was -modest, gentle and'affectjkMAite, kind-hearted 
and ingenuous] conscientious and uprigtft io,his 
secular dealings, ferment and*active in his piety; 
frequently ferti* in devising, and alWby* willing* 
and ready in co-operating, to accomplish any plan 
of usefulness? To say that he had no«rore, would 
be to say ttytt he was not human : or to say tftat he 
did not sometimes fell into errors which would, at 
fii$t sight, excite the surprise of the good people tik 
a Christian lapd* would-be to affirm what no one 
acquainted with the perversity of the Hindoo's heart 
would , expect ftom bn$ but just emerged from pa* 
ganism* .From 4us conversion \o -his death, the 
writer does not recollect ai M nstanCe when a hint, as 
a genfle, rebuke, was erer^ jeceived unkindly, jm^ 
was not found sufficient to correct an error, though 
that enpfr weie tfie result of long*fcabit, or the off* 
spfingof wrqpg instruction iq childhood* * *. * 
v It was a long time before he fully cqpprehendeg • 
the length and this breadth of the fourth command. 
That the Sabbath is a day of rest front all secular 
avocations, and should be in a special manger de- 
voted to the worship of God, bpth public and pri- tj^W > 
vate, he well understood ; but 4 he did >not so fully 
comprehend that it should .be. sanctified to the end, to . 


5 » *■ 

ft. > 

v t • ' * ♦ 

vnw or m sasbath. % . W 

the otte«#xdu*n of Xfaness, de^iqf , worldly 
oooTersatioq, and such Jibe wtnifciotifr on holy lime. 
UofitvoraWe « ibis may at fit* appear to one e<hh 
caied in a Christian land, ho will greatly moderate 
feis censure wMft tye reflects that the idea which 
tbeHin&o attaches to a lyiy 4*y, Mars bo analogy 
to the notion which the devswt Chrilrtt^B entertains 
of the Sabtatk. These holy dayqpwhich amount 
in all to more than three months tNrttof the twelve,* 
are, for the most part, professedly days of worships 
hot, ideality, days of xevelitgs and <^baueh?ry ; 

~ and it is but making a modemte allowance 'for the 
force of habfr, to eqneeivn that the mind of a 
Brahmuivwtrich had for* more than' thirty years 
been nurtured in' the tndbt degrading notions of its 
obligations to the ^pre^-ISeiftg,; should, even 
when partially* en ltgfctea*i $y Dkiae gntce, <$tiH 
incline io identify <tbe sncreAday-of -the 'Christian 

. with its miserable suhqfkitte.t< . - , 

. In Justice to Babqjee, AovsTer, labpuld add that 
these Remarks apply to him with ^s < force, 4H air to* 
any aonttert wfeieh I Jiave inawu fn fins part of 
India, ^ % • . - ■ % # 

Nop. ought we to. wonder, «shqsrld converts from 
paganism lyr found Ihmeulabiy deficient in tndtfs- 
trious baSita Diligence an business is almost as 

r rare a quality &n\oifg tke Hindoos as fervency of 

► « * ■*■ ._ -«' 

* See Chap. V]L*1Pat»'U/ *; 

t See the conckiakm'of Chap; XL Part IX. 



spirit m serving the Lord. They sewn to know 
nothing of the' value, of time. This, a^ded to their 
natural indolence, forms one* of the most obstinate 
barriers to their improvement It is only dire ne- 
cessity, or sensual gratification, that irilpfcls them to 
action. The Arabian prophet well undeiftdod these 
traits<rf character in the people of the East, when 
he made the enjoyment of heaven to consist princi- 
pally in inactivity and Sensual gratification. Te 
eat and drinjfc. smoke the hookar, lounge in perfect 
listlessness, sleep, an4 wallow in beastly indulgence, 

* secpn to form in the mind of the generality of Hin- 
doos the acme of bliss. This native indolence of 
character i» confirmed by long habit, and fostered 
by a great variety of long established customs ; and 
though JDivine grace may produce a more visible 
eb^ge in them than is generally ^served in the 

: conversion of nominal Christians, yet there is, in this 
respect, a most lamentabfe deficiency in all converts 
which have-fallen under my notice in India. * 

'The subject of this mea&eiiytf weighed* in ;ther» 
balance of Christian diligence in America, would b& * 

^found wanting ; but when tried by ,the heathen 
standard, or whc*cowpared with «ny thing I have 
seen among native converts, he was truly an exam- /* 
pie worthy of imitation. .• • 

I have already alluded to Babajee's eagerness to *ty 
search after truth ; to his^rGtdine&s to distinguish 
between good and evil; his concern for the welfare j 



. ^* ^ TJIAITS OF CEAlClXR, '41 

Of A& countrymen ; the facility- tHth which ha 
. <ibandoned any ride of caste, (ft other long esta- 
blished custom, or prejudice, or superstition, the 
moment when hfe ; saw its unlawfulness or impro- 
priety ;— Ms umfwfn, adherence to truth, and Ms 
simplicity of ch*r<icter, and honesty in all his secu- 
lar dealings, as collectively constituting a meet plea- 
sing and satisfactory proof that his understanding 
had*been enlightened, and his heart renewed by 
the Holy Ghost. . v Most of these train would, I am 
aware,* afford in a Christian land but little/ or no de- 
cisive evidence of a genuine work of grace ; but net 
so in a hesfthen land, as the following remarks m 
4 reference to the general character of the natives • of 
India will illustrate. I take the Brahmunapfor an 
example, not only because they ace the priests, aftd 
give character to the views and sentiments of the 
., people, but because Bahajee was a Brahmun j. and * 
* ' " it will thereby appear that the above-mentfpfied 
traits, which, in Christian lands, might be but the 
w : ' results of education, *re by no means such among • 
^ * the class erf people to whiqh Babajee belonged. 

* As each of these particular^ will serve to present 
the- character 4f our lamented toother in his true 
light, and a^t^e same time to exhibit the corruption 
. of the Hindoo priesthood, I {pak* no apology ibr en- 
* ' ; . larging on thfem, that the contrast may appear. 

1. Eagerjiess te+eyrch after the truth, is n*» 

where, as I can discover, a characteristic of a Brah* 





42 . JABAJEE-S CHARACTER # * » „ * 

mun, I refer mere particularly to Brahmuns in thfe 
interior, Adhere they bfcve bad but little or no inter- 
course with Europeans on the subject of science or 
religion: for with such I have had^he Most to doc 
But of the great number with whom I have con- 
versed, on the different topics iftvaived in our rela- 
tion to our Creator and Redeemer, and on the 
various subjects of science which have from time to 
time formed the subject of discussion, I do not know 
that I can hoftptly make an excjjgion, when I say, 
that I have not found one who showed a decided 
wish to know what is true and what false. At the 
time, I have frequently thought^Jifferetffty ; but Ike 
. . jesult has generally shown, that .an interested mo- 
^ tive laf at the bottom of 111 their concessions. They . 
stupidly believe, or pretend to Relieve, every thing 
whisk is handed down from their forefather* When, 
' questioned to know #*y they believe this, or tfafe 
t thing, they will reply, that investigation ox-timm** 

aion is no part of their duty ; for those matters Were, 
• all piously examined and settled by the good men of 
old 5 and that it ill beconjes them, in thfs4ri^e)ieiaffe •' 
age, to doubt the wisdom of their very holy and 
learned ancestors. . If asked, why th^y believe there 
is one sea of ghee, one of milk, another of honey, q£ 
4bc., or why they believe that sin can be expiated ty 
bathing, pilgrimage, feasting Brahmuns, or by pen- 
ance, they reply very comfla&ntly, " So # it is wiitten 
jn our shastras ; and surely our pious fcrefattiera j 

-■ i 




» . " • » • ' • % 

« * - » CONTRASTED. * '43 

understock; thfes^ matters." They Will tell yon, toQ, . 
though not in a scriptural sense, "that as a man 
believeth, so is he :" that is, if he believe a stone, or 
<a free, or any viable object, to be a god, to him it is 
i- so; 4>r if he believe a sinful creature to be his 
i- satfiou*, or a bad taaifr to be a good man, to him he '• 
s becomes so. Hence the second particular mentioned 
) will also appear true, namely : 

2. That the Brahman shows a most stupid de- 
ficiency in distinguishing between gmd and evil. 
They call good evil, and evil good ; light darkness, 
and darkness light. Lying is good, if it result in '' 
immediate b&efit : t* speak the truth is evil/ if it 
terminate in immediate loss. Meats and drinRs, ' 
divers washings and corporeal inflictions, make up 
their righteousness, *hile sin is really but a trans- " 
greesion of the laws of caste. To lie, steal, cheat, de- . 
_ £eive, commit adultery, and xriHibw like swine in the * 
' * 4k& <tf moral turpitude, is too trifling a thing to be » 

named : it fe wily whut their gods did before them* 
^ But to eat with a man of another caste, however 
respectable lie may be, or to drink out of the same 
-^oup, is a sin only pardonable by a large SVun of 
i °\ "jaaoney ! A Brahmun becomes polluted by eating 
Jp* ^feith his .own prostitute, but not by cohabiting with 
' ^ he& although she be of low caste* 
!•* ^S." Xhe anxiety and disinterestedness which 

[ Babajea manifested in MS ejforts far the welfare of 
his countrymen, botfr in this worlfl and the world to . 



* V • < * 


QOme, are traite which we in vain search forfcmong 
the Hindoo priesthood. «Disuiterestedness4Ehd gra- 
titude are ideas, to express which there are no cor- 
responding terms in the Indian lgpguagetf^ and it 
may be questioned whether any such ideas exfef in 
a native's mind; However 'this may be,, it is a 
'lamentable fact, that effort of any kind are very 
seldom or never fiiade for the spiritual benefit of 
their fellow beings. How can a gleam of benevo- 
Jence warm* the heart trf> one, jrho fancies^hat die 
shadow of a man of low caste pollutes him ; and who 
will affirm, as I have heard them, that he would not 
lay hold of sftch *a. one to pull bim out of a Xtch, 
though this were the only mean* to save the poor 
. maira life ? They most industriously conceal from 
the people the books which they regard as divine, 
asserting, as if written in them, any thing which \ 
best suits their own purposes. Tffere probably never 
was, since the creation of die world, so complete arid ^ 
gross a system of priestcraft as Hindooism. Not a ' 
precept is inculcated, not a ceremony is palmed on 
the people, that does not directly or indirectly go to 
aggrandize or profit the priesthood. The > poor 
wretch is told to make a pilgrimage, and is pro- 
mised iri consequence a large stock of merit. This ^J 
is to* feed a set of lazy Brahmuns, and tp support a * 
train of vile prostitutes,, who k€fg> the holy pi%a.* 
For the poor man may rest assured,' tfaafr he #i| 

* See Chief* VEI. Part II. 




^ • • • 
.-*'+ cojmusrfcD. 45 

' nev^fepve the satisfaction of knowing that the ob- 
ject otitis pilgrimage is accomplished, and that he 
may return home, till his money m gone. * Almost 
every; t$ent in the common occurrences of life, must 
be attended with some silly ceremony/ This is that 
the Brahmnn may- get a fee. The mental improve- 
ment, much, less, the eternal welfare of the people,- 
forms 00 part of a Braftmun's wishes and plans in 
reference to tiis flock. As far -as he manifests any 
concern about them, it se§ms to be to beep them in- 
volved in the grojf darkness of ignorance. When 
the drunkard becomes sober, or tht profane man de- 
xcfy, or thfe highway robber ap honest man, he Joes 
not exhibit a taor*decided change <Jf hearty than the 
Brahmun does when his breast glow^ with b^evo- 4 
lence towards his kind. Being themselves supremely 
selfish, they cannot conceive haw any one should be 
otherwise.. Henft the idea, which has now for 
these twenty years been held out, that the missionary 
enterprise is a disinterested thing, solely for their 
own. benefit, appears to them perfectly preposterous. 
It is to be doubted, whether one piH o£ a thousand of 
> jthose who know something of the nature of mission- 
ary exertions, yet belie Ves that there is not behind th% 
curtain some grand scheme of profit or aggrandize- 
ment, both to missionary societies and to their mis- 
sijgpries. Formejly, they supposed them connected 

^with government for sorue important' purpose. We 

«. - «» • * • > 

* See Chap. XXJParlllv "* „ 

• * 




cannot, when we look into'a native's mind, wondeJs 
that he should entertain sifeh notifrns/>f ill plans of 
benevolence and we cannot expect that he will ap-. 
predate in another, ^quality which he, is 4(hsfcious 
he does not possess hioself, and which, from expe- 
- rience and observation, he knows does not exist 
among those with whom he associates. It is therefore, 
from his knowledge of human nature, and agreeable 
to what he supposes the plain dictates of common 

* sense, that he comes to fee con$tosi*n, %st no such 
quality can any where exist. Although he cannot 
himself now see*in what way missionaries them- 
selves ( or their friends are to be benefited, by their 
thankless and laborious efforts for the good of the 
peojflfc of India, still, reasoning from the only pre- 
mises of Which he is in possession, he can have no 
doubt that pecuniary benefit or worldly aggrandize* 

* the moving principle. Theie are, however f 
some who, affecting to -be. more sagacious, asfcwell as 
more charitaWe, brieve ftie missionary ^ork is an 
aifair of p$erit of penance, perhaps of in&ulgenee, 
by which those, who devote their lives m% foreign 
land, and /expend large* sums of motley in the dSfc- 
tribution of books, in the support oCschbols, and in 
various other benevolent and eh^rifejjle efforts, pur- 

* chase to themselves a large* stock erf punya^(right- 
.eoustxess). Persons of this ctpss-eannpt, of course, 

$fcnt congratulate -themselves^as die promoters 4rf oftr 
spiritual good, aad perhaps .claim some share in. 



^Wr merit, when they coasent to become the objects 
of *»ur righteousness-making system by receiving 
oar books, tolerating our schools, and jjtting. by us 
wbitfhifr relate the story of Jews and the Cross. 

It is scarcely too much to say, that Babajee's 
whote soul seemed bound up in the welfare of his 
people. He#rould weep over their perversity, en- 
treat them wjth the affectiop of a brother, pour out 
his soul to God for their salvation, and beseech the 
Lord to pre^rve^the juissiq^tries who are laboring 
for their good, and to increase their number. In his 
private conversations with the people, which were 
many, and'in his. daily instructions at our religious 
services, he always pressed the truth on their atten- 
tion, with a tenderness and force which was flftuly 
admirable. * ' 

4. The facility with which he renounced any 
custom or prguflice> or any usage qfcasle+.As soon. ' 
as he discovered it to be contrary to the Christian 
religion, is«o less indicative of a radical change. 
Fof no ape who knows tfe Hindoos will allow that 
this is Jl natural trait To forego any of the sifly 
rites pf caste, to eat from^tho hands of a person of 
another order, to admit an innovation, or even to 
adopt an improvement, is as repugnant in a heathen 
land, as the opposite is in a Christian land. I can- 
not better illustrate this par u of the subject, than by 
a reference to What Jiasj actually fallen, under ray 
observation in the^aseofBrahmung who have been 

• « 
# « 

* ■ '** V ♦ 

employed by us at ^.timedrfuggur, as pandits. 1 One ' 
objected to' a man of low caste ^coming into- the ** * 
room whereihe was, and would not allow: the ta»4e } 
to be laid, or a pieccpi meaj tobe brftujjhtinto his - 
presenc*. Another qsjss polluted- bg .passing' ovSr a 
^ mat on which a Mhar had stepped. The same person 

# tt«ked leave of absence for three days, "to purify -bjjm. 

self from a pollution with which he.had become in- 
fecKd, by a Mhar passing through a^room where be 
• Y^t.sitting, the room .^png matted*- flnea b&was 
: sailed before «. council of Brahmuns, ttnd rh jjjf 
with taljjng from my rjand, and eating, a banana. 
- The. same men petitioned t«,haye' a low wall built 
, across «r mud chapef, at which they were required 
to. attend Divine ^woishin while in our service, that 
they .might be the more effectually secured from the 
people of low caste, who were also present. These J 
prejudices, born with them, and engrafted in their 
ss deserve motj^ indnl- 
Thejidtninll Christian j* 
ike before he becomes a 
>fj these relics of pagan- 
i, it is only what might 
be looked for.' In thjs, however, Babajee formed an 
exception. He would eat with foreigners, and had 
"' almost continually some one of low caste about bis 
- -^ house. More than once he£sjle .several of the te- 
st gjpnatee of4hekoV-£»iisajpej»ons-of the lowest taste, 
to dinner, and partook' with 'them himself. He 



seemed to hare wholly freed his mind from the no- 
tions of lucky and unlucky days, omens, hobgoblins, 
and the like ; a deliverance of vast magnitude for a 
Hindoo. But nothing showed more decidedly the 
complete conquest which he had gained over the 
superstitions and customs of the country, than that 
vrhich appeared in reference to touching the dead, 
especially the corpse of a low caste person. In two 
instances he prepared the body for burial, and as* 
sisted in carrying the corpse from the house. The 
Cheerful and unhesitating manner in which he did a 
duty, which v no Brahmun in the country would do 
for the price of his caste, or perhaps the price of his 
life, excited the wonder of Dajaba, who had been a 
professor of Christianity more than five years, with- 
out being able to bring his mind to so willing a per- 
formance of a duty of (his kind. 

5. Speaking the truth. In scarcely any way did 
Babajee evidence more clearly a radical change of 
heart, than in his uniform adherence to the truth. 

This, in a -Christian country, would not, I am 
aware, be allowed as any decisive evidence; for 
there the liar is stigmatized by an enlightened pub- 
lic opinion. But nothing of this exists in a heathen 
land. It was never more true of the Cretans, than 
it is of the Hindoos, " that they are always," and all 
" liars." The only exception to be made in favor, or 
rather against the Brahmuns, is, that they practise 
the abominable vice with a little more grace and 



subtlety. Both in precept and practice, they allow • 
that a man may lie, if he can be more benefited by 
a falsehood than by the truth. The people are also 
taught, from their sacred books, that, if the interest 
of a Brahman, or the welfare of a cow, require it, 
they ought to lie, and that such a lie is no sin. Prom 
the Maharaja, (the great king,) down through every 
grade of his subjects; every man speaks the truth or 
Utters falsehood, just as he fancies will best comport 
with his own interest. The native prince makes 
treaties, to break them ; pledges his faith, to violate 
it the moment it suits his interest or convenience. 
This same disregard to all engagements and bar* 
gains, runs down through all ranks of natives. You 
can expect a native to fulfil an engagement, only 
as far as he is impelled by Interest or fear of 

An example or two will suffice to show how the 
most learned and respectable among the priesthood 
can lie. A Brahmun, by the name of Ragoba, has 
been employed by us as a Mahratha pundit, since 
the establishment of the mission, nearly two years 
ago. He is a mild, gentlemanly roan, regards him* 
self very wise and holy, and shows, to say the^least, 
more pride to be thought a man of truth and integ* 
rity, than any Brahmun with whom I have been ac- 
quainted* As an indispensable condition of service, 
he is required to attend at our preaching-place on 
the Sabbath^ and the prayer-meeting on the first 

OF m bjuhmu* s. 51 

Monday of the month. Being, of coarse, averse to 
this, he invented every excuse to avoid it After 
some time, his excuses became more frequent ; and 
I (for he was then in my service) had too much 
-Mason to believe he was deceiving me by gross 
-falsehood. At one time, he mistook the hour, or his 
family were sick ; at another time, a lather or bro- 
ther from a distance had called on him, and he 
could not negiect the tenderest offices of friendship; 
again, he had heard of die death of a relative at 
another village, and was unclean, and <5ould not m 
consequence appear in public. So improbable did 
his excuses become, that I finally told him, that I 
should no longer regard them. After a few Sabbaths, 
he was absent again. I had but just returned from 
the morning service, when he came to me with a tale 
of wb, which softened all my severity. The image 
of grief sat on his countenance, and his whole de- 
meanor made me repent of my rigor. He was tacitly 
•excused before he spoke. My conscience reproved 
me, that the poor man should think it necessary to 
obtain my approbation, to enjoy the melancholy 
pleasure of spending the few hours which were af- 
forded, over all that remained of his only and beloved 
son. " Yes," said he, " my only son is dead : he died 
this very morning. I hope you will excuse my ab- 
sence, and allow me to pay the last mark of respect 
to his remains this evening. The manner in which 
bespoke, indeed his whole deportment, confirmed the 

M mil. SUKOlfBSTT 

truth of bis words. His grief, thought I, is not that 
superficial, half-felt grief, which sometimes appears 
in the countenance of an indifferent father only, on 
the days of the death and burial of his child. But 
it is rather that deep, solemn, and almost heart- 
rending grief, which a tender mother feels when the 
darling of her bosom is snatched away by death. I 
sought without delay to make the best amends I 
could, for the wound which I had, unintentionally, 
inflicted. I opened my Mahratha Testament, and 
poured into his wounded spirit the balm which 
flows from that blessed fountain. He appeared more 
calm, and acknowledged the superior excellency 
of the Christian Scriptures in the hour of distress. 
Thankful for the comfort which I had administered, 
he went away. * After the days of mourning and pu- 
rification had passed, he returned to his employment. 
Though he had by this time resolved the whole into 
ruthful /ate, and bowed to the shrine of his hard 
destiny, he was evidently still a man of grief. I ac- 
cordingly referred to the subjeet with all due deli- 
cacy, and endeavored to improve the occasion to his 
spiritual benefit. Judge then of my surprise, when 
I tell you, that I have the consolation of knowing 
that the child is still living : indeed, he was never 

It will not be irrelevant to mention, under this 
head, the unfairness and prevarication which a Brah- 
mun will use in argument. I have seldom conversed 


in good earnest with one of this class, that is, con- 
versed with him in such a manner as to press upon 
him the peculiarities of the Christian religion, so that 
he could not hot see that it was done at the expense 
of bis own favorite scheme, when he would not, to 
gain his end, prevaricate, turn, twist, contradict him* 
self, deny that he ever said what but a moment be- 
fore he uttered, resort to gross falsehoods, and use 
any means which best suited his present exigency* 
To gain their point with an opponent, or to answer 
their selfish ends with the people, they will assert, aa 
written in their shastras, any thing they please ; and 
what they affirm to be divine truth to day, they 
will, on the same principle, deny to-morrow. Ba- 
bajee, by his uniform practice of unhesitatingly and 
unequivocally speaking the truth, differed from what 
he once was, in the same degree that he did from 
the men of his tribe. For he was, like them, a child 
of the same father. (John viii. 44.) As closely con- 
nected with the preceding, I may next mention, 

6. His simplicity of character, as a grace which 
eminently adorned our Hindoo Christian, but one, 
too, for which he was in nowise indebted to Hiu- 
dooisnL The term will but ill apply to any class of 
people which I have met in India. They are, as a 
people, double-tongued, double-minded, subtle, and 
deceitful, every man according to his ability. To 
speak of a simple-hearted, artless Brahmun, would 
be like speaking of a sober drunkard, or a pious 



infidel. Never does the subtlety of the Brahimm 
appear more pre-eminently hateful, than in the 
ten thousand artful manoeuvres which he is con* 
stantly practising, to keep the eyes of the people 
closed from the light, and to induce them to keep up 
the observance of those silly rites which secure his 
own honor, and gam him a livelihood. The ex- 
ample given above, very strikingly illustrates this 
part of the subject too. But a few others will be 
here tolerated. To defeat our efforts for female 
education, the Brahmuns intimated to the parents of 
the girls, who were at first drawn into school by the 
force of presents, that our object in organizing girls 1 
schools, was, to collect together as many as we 
could, then take them off to our own country, or sell 
them as slaves. A teacher who had been dismissed 
for illicit intercourse with one of the older girls, in 
order to prevent any other person from succeeding 
in the school, (which already was but just tolerated 
by the people) propagated the same story, accompa- 
nied with other fabrications, which quite destroyed 
the school. Nothing is too absurd for the credulity 
of the people. They were all frightened, and kept 
their children at home. 

To prevent the success of any plan of ours ; to 
get service for themselves, or to get a recommenda- 
tion to a gentleman in the service of government, 
they are proverbially clever in all the expedients of 
craft, flattery, significant insinuations, frauds, and 


falsehoods. If they wish to prevent some poor man 
from receiving a book, or hearing our doctrine, they 
have only to say, " some calamity will fall on you ;* 
and holding in their own hands all the dark myste- 
ries of signs, omens, and inauspicious days on the 
one hand, and relying on the credulity of the people 
on the other, they find it no difficult task to sway 
the minds of a superstitious and ignorant populace 
as they please. They gravely open the Pttuckang, 
(Hindoo calendar,) and daslare that a work must be 
undertaken on such a day, or that the consequence 
of such and such an undertaking will be prosperous 
or disastrous ; or that a marriage must be imme- 
diately celebrated or delayed, according to their 
fancy, or more generally, according as it best suits 
their own interest. In this way they keep up an in* 
fluence over the minds of the people, not only ridi- 
culously absurd, but very advantageous to them* 
selves, and ruinous to the people, If, again, they 
wish to incur our favor, they will call on us, speak 
in the most flattering terms of our labors, (though 
we know them, at the same time, to be exceedingly 
bitter against us,) eulogize Christianity, profess their 
belief in it, and beg that we will put them in a way 
to be instructed in its doctrines. All this is done 
with perfect grace, and with all the appearance of 
sincerity. The instances here alluded to have fallen 
under my own observation, and will be given in do* 
tail elsewhere.* 

* See Chap. X. Part IL 

50 babajsb's honbstt. - 

7. Honesty in secular affairs* Most of the se- 
cular business of the mission, together with the 
daily distribution at the poor-house, was in Bahajee's 
hands. He never wanted opportunity, if he had 
been disposed, to practise on us acts of dishonesty 
almost every day. The usages of the country, too, 
would have justified him in such a manner as, in 
many cases, to spare his own character in the eyes 
of the people, and to prevent its coming to our ears. 
As this is known to be a most vulnerable point in the 
character of a heathen convert, the strictest vigi- 
lance was observed towards him, lest the confidence, 
which the weak state of our mission at the time 
obliged us to repose in him, should be abused, or a 
temptation thereby placed before him, to ensnare his 
soul into the easy-besetting sin of the heathen. But 
I am most happy to say, that I never detected him 
m attempting to defraud me of a single pice, nor had 
any reason to think he ever did it No one that 
ever heard the name Hindoo, will pretend to call this 
a national trait, or the result of Hindooism. Cheat- 
ing, defrauding, and embezzling, are limited in this 
country, only by the ability of the native, and the 
means which he has to practise them. The usages 
of the country allow this to a certain extent; but a 
native is not likely to stop short at the limits of sanc- 
tioned dishonesty, if he have the power and oppor- 
tunity of going further. This only forms a pretext 
to go any length he chooses. For example, if a 
man in your service be intrusted with a sum of 


money, great or small, for the purchase of articles, 
his first object is, to pocket a part of it, in the ex- 
change of silver for copper; then he overcharges 
for the articles; and lastly, if possible, cheats in 
weight or measure. The Puntogee (school teacher) 
brings a false account of his scholars, and demands 
his pay accordingly. The laborer, the cooly, (por- 
ter,) the merchant, or mechanic, if he sees you are 
impelled by necessity or distress to call in his aid, 
has no bowels of compassion . I am disposed to think 
that the natives do practise more dishonesty on 
foreigners than they do on their own people. They 
have an idea that Europeans, being their conquer- 
ors, must be rich, and can well afford what their 
wants demand, or what their avarice craves. And 
as the former are foreigners, and have but an imper- 
fect knowledge of their language and customs, they 
do not want opportunitiesto indulge their propensity. 
The native servant undoubtedly finds it much less 
difficult to justify himself for defrauding a European 
master, than he would a Hindoo or Mussulman. 

The circumstances of Babajee were such, that 
he might often have improved them to his advantage! 
In several instances he refused bribes which were 
offered him (a practice very common where a native 
has the superintendence of any business) if he would 
induce me to give such an amount for a certain 
piece of work, or such a sum for a certain article. 
According to the customs of tfce country, every over* 


seer of business, in which workmen axe employed, 
demands and receives a small share of the daily 
wages of each person. He also gets a per centag* on 
every rupee expended in materials for the work, 
besides divers little or great immunities, as the 
rupees pass through his hands. Babajee, of his ova 
acoord, set his face at once against all these customs. 
He regarded them as fraudulent in themselves! and 
contrary to the usages of the Christian religion. 


Htf tenderness of eonseienoe— docile temper— hnmflity.— A paper on 
•elf-examination — bis dependence on God-— conquest over co vet- 
oneness expressed in a letter toother converts— loves the BibW— 
feels for his countrymen.— Letter to Rev. Mr. Anderson. 


Whilb the foregoing particulars undoubtedly 
deserve in the present case all the prominence which 
has been given to them as marks of a radical change 
of heart, I should be doing unpardonable injustice 
to his piety, were I to pass over the more direct, and 
for the time being, the more satisfactory evidences. 
It is true the tree must finally stand or fall according 
as it brings forth good or bad fruit. But as there 
can be no well-grounded hope that a- tree, however 
sightly it may for a tifne appear to the eye, should 


continue to flourish and bear fruit, unless ii be well 
rooted in a good soil, and refreshed by the genial 
dews and rains of heaven, it becomes, fay no means, 
the least interesting part of our task, to seek to enter 
into the mote secret recesses of his heart, and there 
inquire from whence originated the above-mentioned 
trails of Christian character, which, as we have seen, 
so much distinguished him from his heathen coun- 
trymen. - 

He possessed & tender conscience* If,fromsk>th- 
fulness* or inadvertence, or from die force of former 
habit he neglected his daily devotions, or did, or said 
any thing which might give an unfavorable impres- 
sion of the religion which he professed ; or, if in his 
more public instructions he unwittingly advanced a 
sentiment, which is not in accordance with Scripture 
doctrine, on being reminded of his error, he always 
manifested the deepest concern lest he had given the 
enemy occasion to blaspheme, or misguided some 
benighted soul who might otherwise have been led 
to seek after the truth. The following striking in- 
stance is too characteristic to be omitted. Some 
months after his conversion h$ was called as a wit- 
ness' before a court of justice. The magistrate was 
the only European present, and not regarding, if he 
knew* that Babajee was a Christian, he administer- 
ed the oath to him as he did to the other native wit- 
nesses, according to his usage) on the Koran. 
Babajee immediately saw hisrmistake, but not till it 


was too late to remonstrate, and to declare himself a 
Christian, and no believer in the Koran. He returned 
home filled with remorse that he had, m the presence 
of many natives, 'so far compromised his faith m 
Christianity, as to lay his hand on the sacred book 
of the Mussulmans. As the Koran is substituted for 
the Bible by the government in administering oatfis 
to natives, because they dp not believe in the latter, 
he, with much propriety, felt that he had acknow- 
ledged the same unbelief in not insisting on being 
sworn on the sacred book of the Christians. He 
wept bitterly, and manifested for several days the 
deepest contrition; often did he acknowledge Ms 
guilt, and humble himself at the feet of sovereign 
mercy, and there seek for that pardon which alone 
could tranquillize his troubled spirit 

He had a docile, child-like temper. This was 
far removed from the silly credulity which empha- 
tically makes the Hindoo the dupe of any one who 
will say a marvelous thing. But once, after a tho- 
rough examination, having renounced his ancient 
system of belief, with all its farrago of inconsisten- 
cies he implicitly took the Bible as his counsel and 
his guide. Like an amiable child, who loves and 
reveres his father, and knows that his kind parent, 
though be may sometimes cross his favorite plans, 
only seeks his ultimate good, so Babajee adopted 
the Missionaries with whom he was connected as his 
parents, and ever yielded to them the most filial love 


and obedience. When, as sometimes happened, hit 
opinion of the. best nxrie el accomplishing a thing 
differed from that of the Missionary with whom bo 
was associated, he would express his opinion with 
respect, but never with assuming confidence. 
Whether his opinions were adopted or not, he would 
not on the ooe^hand assume an undue importance, 
or on the other manifest tardiness or disaffection m 
joining heart and hand in the accomplishment of the 
desired object, in any way consistent with Christian 
policy. His heart was much in the duty of preach- 
ing the gospel from village to village. He never ap- 
peared so happy as when traveling from place to 
place, and declaring to new multitudes of heathen, 
evasy day, the before unheard of riches of Jesus 
Christ As he was at that time my only associate 
in the mission, we could not both conveniently be 
absent from Nuggur at the same time. Nor could 
Babajee travel alone. The Brahmuns would not 
deign to be taught by ongttf their own number whom 
they regarded as an outcast, unless they saw htm 
under the protection of some one to whom nature 
had given a skin of the same color with their 
rulers. Considered as a servant of such a one, they 
are not disparaged by hearing him. Such is the 
case too, in a greater or less degree, with the common 
people,, who are, in these matters, much influenced 
by their priests. Though extremely desirable that he 

should accompany the Missionary on these tours, 



■till it was not always expedient In this, as in mat* 
ten of less moment, be would submit with cheerful 
and filial obedience, and never allow his disappoint- 
ment to relax his labors at home. 

On one occasion, when lie was about to be left 
behind, the determination was changed from the 
following peculiar circumstance. He had the day 
previous consented, that, in existing circumstances, 
it were better for him to remain in Nuggur. On 
the following night he dreamed, or thought he saw, 
a grave personage standing before him, habited in a 
European garb, and saying, " You must go." 
Whether asleep or awake he could not tell ; but the 
voice, or the supposed voice, impressed him solemn- 
ly, till, falling asleep, as he supposed, the same was 
repeated. On relating, in the morning, what had 
occurred, he said, he was in doubt whether the 
words, you must go, meant (if they were to be con- 
sidered as meaning any thing) that the day of his 
final departure was at hand, or that he most go and 
preach the gospel to those who were near and who 
were afar off* As he seemed inclined to believe that 
it might be an intimation of the latter, I thought it 
wise to waive the consideration for his remaining at 
' home, and suffer him to go with me, not knowing 
but the Lord bad a particular work for him to do. 
Nothing, however, occurred s on this tour, or imme- 
diately afterwards, to remove the doubt which still 
remains in my mind, whether this were a dream or 

his humility* 68 

* vision, or divine intimation, or a scheme of his to 
induce me to take him on the tour. I have no goo* 
reason to suppose the latter was the ease* 

Humility, that matchless grace, without which 
the pure and undefiled religion of the meek And 
lowly Jesus will not deign to dwell in the heart of 
man, beautifully adorned the walk of oar Hindoo 
brother. His voluntary and entire renunciation of 
caste, which, in its humiliating consequences, dash* 
ed to the ground the boasted fabric of Brahminicol 
infallibility, and left the demigod* but a poor, sinful, 
self-destroyed man, afidrds of itself a pretty satisfac- 
tory proof that he possessed this amiable grace ; for, 
by this one act, he at once and for ever forfeited 
every thing which in this life is dear to man — h& 
home, his family, his countrymen, the priesthood m 
which he had gloried, were now to him worse than 
annihilated ; for, they not only remained to him as 
monuments of his former folly, but they afford- 
ed the Brabmuns ample occasions for abusing 
and despising him. Not even the common hospi- 
tality of a father or a brother, or the ordinary com- 
passion which is shown to the meanest beast, could 
he now elaftm. But it is not to the patience, the 
humility, and cheerfulness, with which he supported 

* The Brahmuns regard themselves not only as the peculiar 
favorites of Heaven, but, in consequence of the honorable descent 
from ike mouJtk of the Creator, as a superior order of beings. They 
believe themselves as much superior to other men, as God is •«£*• 
\ rior to the Brahmuns j that is, they hold a station middle way be- 
tween Go4 and man. 


himself when thus circumstanced, to which I now 
refer. It ie rather la that distrust of t*£t, that feeling 
of unworthioeas, that sensitive concern lest ho 
should do or say something prejudicial to the cause 
of Christ, or dishonoring to God, which satisfied the 
■and thai Bnbajee'* hitaoitity was not the humility 
of the hypocrite. 

He wholly disclaimed all hope of righteousness 
through the merit of works, and trusted only in the 
meritorious righteousness of Jesus. Justification by 
frith was a subject on which he dwelt much in bis 
instructions to the people. He dwelt much, too, in 
his private conversation, on the decettftiliiess and 
exceeding depravity of bis heart, and often expressed 
his fears thai he might be left to fell into grass sin. 
The most prominent thing in bis addresses at the 
throne of grace, was confession of sin. He seldom 
spoke of bis former course of life, or of his present 
innate corruption, without tears. Whether ho was 
beset by Satan with any peculiar temptations which 
do not fell to the common lot of the godly, I am no* 
able to say ; but true it was, that he very frequently 
spoke of the devices, the intimations, the sugges- 
tions of an evil spirit, in such vivid term** as always 
to give me the impression that he had grappled with 
him in all but a visible form. It will not, therefore, 
appear wonderful that he was often subject to turns 
of deep despondency and doubt respecting his own 
salvation. Often would he read and converse on 


JLnke 13 : 24-29, saying, after all, I may be a cast- 
away. It will net be amiss -here to introduce a 
translation of another of his papers. It is entitled, 
41 Self-examination and Meditations, by Babajee^ 

a converted Brahman. 
" O ! my soul, say to what thou inclines! ! If thou 
inclinest to the things of this world, consider then 
what thou wilt he when thou leavest the world, and 
say to what thou inclinest! For it is written hi 
the word of God, " the carnal man receiveth not the 
things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness 
to him, neither can he know them, for they are spi- 
ritually discerned." Blessed Triune God, in the 
name of Jesus Christ, grant me the Holy Spirit, and 
make me happy, both in this world and the world 
to come. But if I only desire worldly happiness in 
the name of Christ, then I am not a true believer in 
him. O ! my soul, look to Jesus ! They platted a 
crown of thorns, and put it upon his head ; and put 
in his hand a reed, bowed their knees before him, 
and in derision said, Hail, king of the Jews ! then 
spit upon him, and taking the reed, smote him on 
the head. And when they had mocked him, then 
they took from him the scarlet robe, and put his 
own garments on him, and led him away to be cm* 
eified. If he suffered so much in this world, I must 
expect to suffer. O, my soul ! this world's happi- 
ness is nothing — this world's suffering is nothing. 

" After a short time it will come to an end ; but 

6 # 

66 numa. 

that happiness or misery which is to come, is eter- 
nal If thou seekest after the ' happiness of tips 
world, thou wilt not attain the happiness to come ; 
for we most be dead with Christ If, therefore, we 
desire only carnal happiness, and ask this in the 
name of Christ, we are of this world, carnal. There- 
fore, O, my soul ! cast off all desire for worldly plea- 
sure, seize on the hope of eternal happiness, and in 
the name of the Savionr, pray to God, and thou 
shah receive. Ask for such things as these ; wis- 
dom, peace of mind, compassion, forgiveness, hatred 
of sin, knowledge, love to God, love for the worship 
of God, faith in Jesus Christ, true repentance for 
sin, and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Ask to 
dwell with God, and to enjoy his love for ever. For 
each things as these will I pray. Almighty, sover 
reign God, I have sinned ; I am helpless, and de- 
serve to be punished. I have no righteousness ; I 
cannot walk in the right way. From the time I 
have tried to walk in the right way, till the present 
time, I have continually stumbled. Saviour of the 
world, may the Holy Spirit dwell in my heart, keep 
me from falling, and deliver me from evil. O, God ! 
I put myself into thy hands. When Jesus was on 
earth, he delivered the afflicted from temporal pain, 
and opened the eyes of the blind. From this I am 
taught that all good, temporal and spiritual, must 
come from him. In his name, and for his glory, I 
will daily ask that God will make me happy in this 

NSTKVSt OF fElF. 67 

world, and in tbe world to come. All the happiness 
which we enjoy, must, indeed, come through Jesus 
Christ God is a sovereign, and knoweth all things. 
Therefore, what is most fit for us, that he will sure* 
ly give. Hence, we ought to love him with oar 
wbole mind and heart Merciful God! hear my 
prayer ; I am sinful, polluted, and fidlen ; clean me 
by the blood of Jesus Christ. I was born in sin, my 
works are all sinful, I am sin. Love me, O Gqd ! 
deliver me from destruction— give me a pure heart, 
an* let not evil thoughts arise.- Let not sin predomi- 
nate in my heart Deliver me from pride, covet- 
ousness, the displeasure of the good, and the desire 
of worldly good. But may all my hopes be in the. 
happiness of the world to come : this can only be 
through help in Jesus Christ For I have no power 
of my own by which I should walk in the right 
way. I am, by nature, only deserving of pain ; bnt 
then, merciful God I make me worthy of happiness 
and of thy love. O ! thou ocean of mercy, I am a 
sinful man. I cannot worship thee aright; keep 
me and guide me, according to the truth." 

This distrust of self, naturally begat a correspond- 
ing dependence on God. He seemed to feel, in a 
remarkable degree, that every good and every perfect 
gift is from above, and cometh down from the father 
of lights. He did not here satisfy himself with the 
general expression, that it is in God that we live, 
move, and have our being ; but he regarded, in an 


uncommon degree, his daily food, raiment, protec- 
tion, happiness, the use of his senses, the continua- 
tion of health, the opportunities which the present 
day afforded him of being useful to his countrymen, 
- as special blessings from the hand of God. He would 
often specify particulars like these in his prayers, 
when his heart would glow with gratitude to the 
great Giver, and cast itself in sweet reliance on Him 
who giveth and upbraideth not. He had a happy 
talent, both in his prayers and instructions, of speci- 
fying, and drawing useful lessons from what, in com* 
mon language, are called little things. The birds of 
{he air, the beasts of the field, the starting vegetation, 
the opening flower, the maturing of grain and fruits, 
the blessing of water, of air, of rain to fructify the 
earth, of day and night, and of the vicissitudes of the 
seasons, all furnished him with ample illustrations 
of the unbounded goodness and mercy of God to- 
wards his creatures. When addressing the Brah* 
mans, he would frequently point to a tree, a flower, 
or any sensible object which might be before him, 
and inquire, Is that the workmanship of Shiva or 
Vishnoo ? Can your thirty-three millions of gods, 
produce an object like that ; or, if made to their 
hands, can they preserve it for a moment ? Why 
then will you pass by Him who created, preserves, 
and pervades all things, and worship the lowest 
works of his hands ? If addressing the poor, the 
halt, the blind and maimed of the asylum, he would 


frequently point to a sparrow or an insect, and say, 
" Behold how insignificant a thing is the peculiar 
care of God ! And will he not provide for yon, if 
you love and serve him ? Seek ye not what ye shall 
eat, or what ye shall drink, neither be of doubtful 
mind; for all these things do the Heathen seek 

Babajee too well undssstood the character of his 
countrymen, not to perceive that covetousness is the 
rock on which they are likely to make shipwreck of 
faith. He seemed to watch over his own heart, and 
■smother the rising desires of avarice with great vigi- 
lahce. He never expressed the least dissatisfaction 
respecting his monthly allowance; but gratefully 
received it, as a means which God afforded htm, 
through the benevolence of foreigners, to do good to 
bis deluded people. He often declared, (what every 
missionary too well knows to be true,) that there is 
no stronger temptation to a Hindoo to change his 
religion, than the hope of worldly gain. And, it is 
lamentable to say, that the greater part of those, con- 
•cerning whom we hoped that better motives induced 
them to embrace Christianity, exhibit in this respect 
a grievous deficiency. Instead of gratitude to God, 
and gratitude to die missionaries, who have, for their 
benefit, forsaken all that was dear in country and 
home, voluntarily taken up their residence in an in- 
salubrious climate, and are fast wearing out their 
life for their good, they not only expect a support, 


bat not unfrequently manifest the most trying 
tisfaction that they are not better supported. They 
often feel as if they have conferred a great favor on 
the missionary, by renouncing their own religion, 
and by assisting him in his missionary labon among 1 
themselves ; and that he ought not to be slow in ac- 
knowledging their services, by a good reward. Here 
it should be remarked, that the state of things as yet, 
in this part of India, is such as almost to compel the 
missionary to keep his converts in his service. This 
strengthens the impression, that converts are to re- 
ceive a support, and not unfrequently leads to disap- 
pointment, that the allowance is not more, and the 
labors less.* It is pleasing to be able to make Babajee 
an exception. He not only sought to keep himself 
unspotted from the world, but, as the following letter, 
written by him soon after he came to Nuggur, shows, 
he was not slow to sound the alarm to others. This 
letter was addressed' to Dajaba and Moraba, mem* 
bers of our mission-church at Bombay. The occar 
sion, which called forth the letter at that time, and 
which explains its character, was this : Appa, a con- 
vert in connection with the Scottish mission, and an 
acquaintance of Babajee, had apostatized. His 
covetousness proved his ruin. On hearing of this, 
Babajee lost no time to improve the occasion for the 
benefit of his brethren at Bombay. After the fore- 
going remarks on the Hindoo character, no one will 

* 8pe Chap. XL Fart H. 


inquire, why so much is said in the letter of love to 
ike world, and love for one another. The apostolic 
dress in whieh the letter appears, shows the source 
from which he derived his style of letter-writing, as 
well as iris ideas of identifying Christians of the pre- 
sent day with those of the apostolic age. The " sis- 
ters in Bombay," here spoken of, were women who 
have received baptism, and were members of the 
church. What can sound more strange in a Hindoo 
ear, than to hear a Brahmun exhorting his friends 
affectionately to instruct women.* 


« To Moraba and Dajaba, holy and beloved, and 
called by the gospel to be separate from the world, 
I, ^ servant of Jesus Christ, send greeting, and write 
a letter of exhortation. The supreme God has, as 
we hope, through the shedding of the blood of Jesus 
Christ, sanctified us and separated us from this 
wicked world. In this, how great appears the love 
of God towards us ; and how ought all, on whom 
God has bestowed such unsurpassed mercy, to love 
our Father and God with our whole soul, mind, and 
strength ! This commandment he has given to all 
his servants, ( Love the Lord thy God with all thy 
heart, strength and souL' .Hence we ought each 
one to ask himself, O, my £Qul ! lovest thou the Lord, 
thy most gracious benefactor, with all that thou 

• Bet Chap. XII. Part II. 


hast 7 If thus we examine ourselves, the soul vffl 
give testimony concerning itself. And, according to 
this testimony we ought to act That is, if the soul 
bear witness concerning itsetf, viz. ' I do not love 
the Lord with all my powers of body and mind, 1 
then we must, in the name of God the Son, suppli- 
cate God the Father for the wisdom and direction of 
God the Holy Spirit But if the soul witness con* 
cerning itself ' 1 do, through faith in the blood of 
Jesus Christ, love God with my whole heart and 
life,' then we ought on this account to thank, praise, 
worship, and glorify God. ' Whoever thinketh he 
standeth, let him take heed lest he fail.' 

" Beloved brethren, what think you concerning 
yourselves! Do you love God with all you have 1 
If you reply, yes, then take heed to yourselves. 
Brethren, if you love the world, you cannot love 
God. For no one can love the world, and at the same 
time love God. Therefore, I desire that you do not 
continue in love with the things of the world. For 
whoever sets his affections on the world, shall assu- 
redly fall into eternal condemnation. This ought to be 
clearly understood. You have before you, brethren, 
the example of Appa. He regarded himself a true 
Christian. Having placed upon the things of the 
world, that love which he should place only upon 
God, he has fallen into sin. He has set at nought 
the authority of God, despised his Son, and done 
despite to his Holy Spirit How seemeth it to you, 


brethren is God pleased with those who love the 
world f This cannot be. If any man thinks to be- 
come a Christian while his affections are set on 
worldly good, his heart is full of gross darkness. 
Now Appa became a Christian, but be was not a 
time Christian* His mind became darkened through 
a love of the world. That your minds may not be 
thus darkened, is my desire and prayer to God. 
Brothers, Dajaba and Moraba, how does it appear 
to you ? Did Appa ever love Ood ? No one will be- 
lieve that he How loves Ood. Therefore, let us take 
heed to ourselves, that we stand fast in the faith. 
See to this. I love you, therefore I desire that you 
may love God fervently, and stand firm in the faith. 
For this reason I exhort you. God has given this 
commandment, that as we love ourselves so ought 
we to love one another. Loving myself, again and 
again, I pray to God in the name of Jesus Christ, 
that I may at the last day stand firm in the faith be- 
fore the judge of the world. In my prayers I ask 
for those things which will be needful in the next 
world. For that which is altogether of a worldly 
nature I ask not. For I know this, that whosoever 
loves the world, is of the world, and under the power 
of Satan, a willing servant of the devil. He knows not 
that the ' goodness of God leadeth to repentance.' The 
goodness, mercy, forbearance, and authority of God; 
he sets at naught. Knowing this, I desire to cast off 


all bope of the world, and endeavor to seek and 
pray for that which is spiritual. 

* As I love myself, and ask God that he would 
give me spiritual things, so 1 love you, and therefore 
pray that you may examine whether you axe in the 
faith. Try yourselves, and know what you are. - If 
by any means you forbear to examine your breasts, 
you ought to fear you are of the world, and not of 
God. I most earnestly desire that you may not be 
worldly?minded, but that you may, through the 
power of the Holy Spirit, eradicate from your hearta 
every thing carnal, and cast it from you. Cast away 
fear and unbelief, and adultery, and sorcery, and 
idolatry, and lying, and theft, and every abominable 
practice ; and flee from the abominations of the hea- 
then ; and arm yourselves against the devices of the 
devil. We who are born of the Triune God are, es- 
pecially, brethren. We ought, therefore, the more 
to love one another, and if we love one another we 
shall exhort and instruct one another. Therefore 
you must affectionately instruct our asters who are 
in Bombay. Brethren, we must do all in our power 
for the instruction of our people. The command of 
Jesus Christ whose we are, is, that the gospel should 
be preached to every creature. In obedience Uv this 
command, the American Missionaries, Christian 
Padres, are toiling for our good. From them we 
may learn the Christian shastras. Brethren, we 


have need to study the word of God mach. Before 
I became a Christian, I read the Christian Scriptural, 
.and thought them easily comprehended. But now * 
,1 find in them a bottomless, inexhaustible fountain 
of wisdom ; and many things hard to be understood. 
Let us not forget to search the Scriptures. 

" Finally, brethren, farewell ; be perfect, be of 
good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace, and the 
God of lore and peace shall be with you. Salute 
one another with a holy kiss. The Missionaries at 
Ahmednuggur salute you. The grace of our Lord 
Jdsus Christ be with you." 

Babcyee loved his Bible. He had, as stated be* 
fere, obtained a general knowledge of the New Tes- 
tament previous to his conversion* Now he studied 
the sacred oracles spiritually, admiring their intrinsic 
excellence, and their peculiar adaptation to the wants 
of man in all ages and nations. He was particular* 
ly interested in a religious service, which we held at 
oar table every evening immediately after tea. It 
was for prayer and mutual instruction. We first ♦ 
rend a chapter in the New Testament, each reading 
a few verses in turn, prayed, Babajee, Dajaba, and 
myself alternately, and then took up some subject 
|br discussion ; or I related, as I was able, some por- 
tion of the Old Testament history which has not yet 
been translated. The lively interest with which he 
seized every new fact ; the avidity with which he 
grasped erery new idea, afforded his teacher a rich 


compensation for all the rebuffs and discouragements 
which he was daily meeting from the opposition, the 
hstlessness and indifference of the people from without. 
I have said that Bahajee manifested a very great 
interest for the spiritual welfare of his own people, 
and only desired to live; that he might be an instru- 
ment of good to them. This he regarded as his 
field of labor ; still his heart, in the true spirit of 
Christian benevolence, was enlarged, and he encir- 
cled in its desires the whole human family, His 
prayers were scarcely more frequent or more fervent 
for the people of Hindostan, than they were for the 
Chinese, the European, the African, or the American. 
In imagination he would often 'bring in the day of 
millennial glory, and behold with delight, all nations, 
and tongues, and kindreds, bowing to the sceptre of 
Jesus, ascribing "blessing and honor, glory and 
power, unto him that sitteth on the throne, and to 
the Lamb for ever and ever." He listened with pe- 
culiar interest to the accounts which were given 
him of the efforts which are making at the present 
day, to diffuse the blessings of Christianity through- 
out the world ; and heard with still greater pleasure, 
what progress the light of truth has, within these 
few years, made into the dark dominions of idolatry. 
This light, he would say, which is now pouring in 
upon the nations from every quarter, must ere long 
illuminate India. The history of the recent bene- 
volent movements in America for the distribution of 

to m*. akdbbsoh; T7 

the word of God, the propagation of the gospel both 
at home and abroad, in connection. with the account 
of the rise and progress of the American Republic, 
greatly excited his admiration. He would say, " that 

•is a laud of promise, a chosen inheritance of God." 
As the following letter to the Rev. R. Anderson, 
Cor. Sec. A. B. C. F. M., develops in some degree 
the gratitude which he felt for the labors of Mission- 
aries in India, and his desire to have the number 

^speedily increased, I here insert it 


"To the holy and beloved of God, Anderson 
Sahib, resident in Boston, Babajee and Dajaba, 
servants of Jesus Christ, of the church of Christ in 
Ahmednuggtrr sand many salutations. We would 
first of all thank you, that you, wishing the good of 
the Hindoo people, have sent missionaries to this 
country. These have made known to us the true 
Shastras — the true Saviour, and the true way of 
atonement for sin. Through them we have great 
joy and happiness in Christ. We, Hindoo people, 
a>e, through the favor of the Lord God, under very 
great obligation to your benevolent society. But, 
above all, are we indebted to Jesus Christ. We have 
now begun to keep ourselves from sin, to hate sin, 
and to cherish the love of God in our hearts. In us 
we know there is no righteousness. The righteous- 
ness of Christ only is necessary ; thus we have judg- 
ed. We know there is no God besides the invisible 




Jehovab. The gospel of Christ must be preached. 
This is according to the command of Christ. And 
we, Padre Read, and I, Babajee, according to oar 
strength, have traveled from village to village, and 
preached the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some confess* 
the gospel to be true ; and some proud people, that is, 
the priests of the people, even these, know that the 
Christian shastra is true ; but, on account of their 
pride, they reject the word of God, and they even 
revile us. Nevertheless we believe that a work o£ 
the Holy Spirit of God has begun. Our evidence 
is this, that some have already been led to* inquire, 
to cast off sin, to throw away their idols, and to re- 
ceive baptism. I here write their names ; Kashaba, 
Khondoo, Beekyah ; these three are now happy in 
worshiping God, and in hearing his word. These 
are the names of those in Ahmednuggur who we 
hope have repented and believe in Christ, and have 
asked baptism. (Here follow the names of the thir- 
teen individuals.) These thirteen persons have, we 
think, been converted by the influence of the Holy 

" The Hindoo people are for the most part igno- 
rant. Their priests (the Brahmuns) are generally 
learned, but they do not teach the ignorant people 
the true way ; for they say the ignorant must not 
be taught the true shastra. If they give instruction 
at all, they teach a false religion, for no other pur- 
pose than to fill their own bellies. They will neither 





enter into the kingdom of heaven themselves, nor 
suffer those who would, to enter. We now assure 
you, that, by the grace of God, the work of instruct- 
ing the people here has greatly increased. ^The 
field is ripe for the harvest, but the laborers are few. 
Therefore, praying to God in the name of Christ, we 
say, O Lord God, the world is thy field, and in this 
field the laborers are few. Prepare and send forth 
laborers. And of you, also we ask, for the sake of 
Christ, that you will have mercy on us, and send 
forth more teachers. Should learned men from 
among the Hindoos become true Christians, they 
may, we think, be more efficient laborers, than it is 
possible for foreigners to be ; for foreigners must 
^learn our language before they can instruct us. la 
this respect, the native has greatly the advantage. 

" Great Sulam ; may the grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the love of God the Father, and the com- 
munion of the Holy Ghost be with you. Amen." 


His desire to be free from sin.— A letter to the native cburch'in Bom- 
bay.— Assurance of hope— bis growth in grace.— Letter to Mr, 
Alien— to Mr. and Mrs. Graves— to Dajaba— to Mr. Graves. 

The last internal evidence which I shall mention 

» . , * 

that this idolator had became a child of God, is the 
desire which he manifested to be freed from sin. 

• j 

80 ns vrews of snr 

He believed that genuine happiness can only origi- 
nate from- holiness ; and that sin is the procuring 
cause of all human evil. Here he did not satisfy 
himself with generalities, so as to incline him to re- 
gard sin rather as an unfortunate incident in human 
nature, than as a guilty abandonment of God and 
his righteous law. Perhaps, in some instances, he 
too nicely sought to trace the connection between 
sin and punishment in this world. Forgetting that 
a good member may suffer from his connection with 
a bad community, he sometimes attributed to indi- 
vidual fault consequences which only belong to man 
as a " degenerate plant of a strange vine." However 
this might be, he regarded sin as an infinite evil, 
and longed to be free from " the body of this death." 
To be delivered from sin, was, in his estimation, a 
passport to supreme happiness. Assurance of hope, 
and perfection in holiness, he thought attainable, 
and not only a consummation devoutly to be wished, 
but to be continually sought with prayer and fast- 
ing. In scarcely any thing did he differ more from 
the heathen around him, than in his views of death. 
He often spoke of it as the fruition of all the Chris- 
tian's hopes, not to be dreaded, but desired. The 
idolater, he would say, regards death as the greatest 
possible evil ; for, in it he can see nothing but loss 
and destruction. But to himself it opened the por- 
tals of heaven, and showed him an exceeding and 
eternal weight of glory. 


The foregoing remarks will be better illustrated 
by tbe following letter, written by Babajee a lew 
months before his death, and addressed to the native 
church at Bombay. From this it will appear that 
sanctification, a conformity to the law of God, and 
a transformation into the image of Christ, may be 
as ardently sought by a heathen, when his heart is 
once warmed by the genial flame of heaven, as by 
the convert from nominal Christianity. To be in* 
terested in his communications, one must bear in 
mind the character which has already been given 
of the people of his caste ; and reflecting what he 
was by nature, the reader will be prepared to mag- 
nify tbe goodness of God, when he learns, from his 
own pen, what he became by grace. ~ 
<' Epistle to the Brethren and Sisters in Bombay. 

" Babajee, called by the will of God to be a ser- 
vant of Jesus Christ, to the church of God in Bombay, 

and to all in every place who 6re called holy, through 
the Lord Jesus Christ Mercy and peace from God 
our father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, be with you. 

" Brethren, render unto the Lord Jesus, whom 
you have received, all due honor. Deceive not 
yourselves and others by taking again the «old 
man," which ye have crucified, and plunging again 
into carnal delights and sensuality. If you still in- 
dulge in pastimes, delight in exhibitions of folly, and 
practise the arts of deception, it will come to pass 

babajee's wetter 

that when the heathen see such conduct, they will 
reproach yon and us ; they will reproach our teach- 
ers, and Him who is our Redeemer and yours, and 
the Redeemer of the whole world — even Him who 
is altogether holy. And great evil will follow. For 
this reason, I entreat that your demeanor be not sen- 
sual. For they who only please the senses are 
carnal, and the carnal cannot please God. The 
spirit of Christ is not in those carnal desires which 
men, while in the body, seek to fulfil. And whoso- 
ever hath not the spirit of Christ, he is not of God, 
but of the devil ; and if he be not of God, he will be a 
partaker of the everlasting pains of bell. Before be- 
coming Christians, you indeed walked according to 
the flesh. And now you profess to have cast off the 
natural man, and to have become Christians. Let 
me ask you, Have you done this in mind, or only 
in body and in name? Beloved brethren, whoso- 
ever in appearance and name only, becomes a Chris- 
tian, but whose mind is not Christian, the Holy 
Spirit has no abode in his heart ; he is not, therefore, 
worthy of salvation : it were better that a mill-stone 
were tied to his neck, and he cast into the sea. 
Whoever liveth according to the flesh, is worthy of 
death. Brethren, if through the Spirit ye do mor- 
tify the deeds of the flesh, ye shall live ; ( for as 
many as are led by the spirit of God, they are the 
sons of God.' If ye are called of Christ, behold our 
Saviour, and, like him, become separated from the 


world. He indulged in no vain amusemefats, of 
gratifications. He was a sojourner in this workL 
Direct your mind to him and reflect Was be car* 
nal or spiritual? If you find that he was spiritual, 
then honor him in spirit and in truth, and with 
your whole strength, and tyke upon you his name. 
Whosoever nameth the name of Christ, let him exa- 
mine himself. For he that doth not anxiously try 
himself, shall not continue to the eqd. That you 
may continue to the end, and be acceptable to Christ, 
is my desire. This I ask of you, that you may pre- 
serve yourselves through the aid of the Holy Ghost, 
be saved, and eternally happy. He that examines 
his own heart, understands what the ( minding of 
the things of the spirit' meaneth, and he ordereth 
his conversation cautiously before the people. More* 
over, brethren, as you are now Christ's you must 
teach his commandments. Still, I assure you, that 
your daily walk, is of more importance than mere 
verbal instruction. This, in my opinion, is more 
useful to bring men to believe : therefore, it is writ- 
ten to you, 'be not angry, but, on deliberation) 
choose what seemeth good,' and reject what is evil. 
Ye are pined to the church of Christ, walk, there* 
fore, according to the laws of the church and of 
God, that you may not bring a stigma on the church. 
For, if your conduct before the people be not good, 
they will indeed suppose that all Christians are hy- 


pocrites, and altogether fallen. If any ond professes 
Christ, and being joined to the church, does not pay 
Him all due respect, he is indeed a hypocrite, and 
* the son of destruction ; and, like Judas Iscariot, 
maketh himself the child of hell. Whoever, there- 
fore, professes Christ, apd is united with his church, 
let him take heed to himself, and enter into ever- 
lasting life. 

" Brethren, if teaching according to the laws of 
Christ, ye say, ' do not evil,' but yourselves do these 
things, think ye that ye shall escape the justice of 
God ? He that is of Christ does not exalt himself— 
is not drunken with wine, or infatuated with money. 
He humbleth himself before God. The aged and 
the young, the rich and the poor, are alike to him. 
He should not do an act of charity that the people 
may regard him humble and benevolent. Should 
they say concerning any professed follower of 
Christ, ' he is called a Christian, true ; but he is 
proud ;' by such a saying Christ would be reproach- 
ed through a proud Christian. I pray that Christ 
may not be reproached by any one who is called a 
Christian, but that he may be glorified. Whoever 
calls himself a Christian, but walks contrary to the 
law of the Lord Jesus Christ, let him die the death. 
For, as it seems to me, whoever sins against God, he 
may find forgiveness through Jesus Christ. But if 
any one professes himself to be a follower of the 


ttATUfeS OP MO*. 86 

' Lord Jesns the only Saviour of the world, and fine 
against him, he undoubtedly must suffer in the fire 
pf faeU for ever.* 

" Beloved brethren, if any one among you Bay 
* I have faith, hut not works,' what can faith profit? 
Itow can such faith save hha? If a toother or sister 
lie destitute of clothes, and without daily food, and 
ppe among you say, ' Go in peace, be ye warmed 
wa4 filled/ nevertheless he gives him not the things 
necessary, what doth it profit ? 60 if there be not 
vorks, faith is dead. If you believe there is hot one 
<*od, in this you do well. BtU oven this the devils 
' believe, end tremble. - Must we not regard faith 
without works a» dead ? * Our father Abraham of- 
fered up his own son Isaac on the altar. In this act 
Jhe was justified. Bet was it not faith working with 
/ the deed? an4 by the act his faith was shown to be 
t genuioe. Thus was he accounted as righteous, and 
ceiled the friend of God. 

u Brethren and sisters, it is written in the true 
shastras that " ye should love one another ;" that is, 
net in appearance only, but iadeed, help one another. 
We are Iwmd to love one another. On this account 
the Christian religion is love. 

- • "I insert thi* erroneous sentiment as a specimen of the liability 

©f a convert from heathenism to fall into doctrinal errors. Babajee 

was not ignorant of the doctrine of the unity of the Godhead. TM 

reader will readily perceive the carious train of thought which led 

mm to this conclusion. Overlooking for the moment the intimate 

. relation of the Father and the Son, be naturally enough concluded, if 

k a man rejected the only deliverer of the world there could be no fur- 

I tjier remedy. He may mean, if any one finally rejects Christ, and 

me sentiment will be correct. 

• * 8 


86 assvbaiccs- op HOPS* 


"Jehovah, Saviour of the world; tbeumrt holy, 
we are altogether unholy. We can • do no good 
thing. At thy hand we beg, in the tiame of Jeans 
Christ, whatever is needful for our salvation, for 
justification through the merit of the Redeemer, and 
fox happineaa in this world and the world to coma. 
We entreat thee for all men, that they may he saved* 

« May the grace of the Lord Jeeue Christ, the love 
of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be 
with you all. Amen." 

I have aaid that Babqjee thought assurance of 
hope and perfection attainable. If he mistook in the 
latter it arose from his contemplating too exclusively 
the willingness of God to bestow the Spirit without 
measure on all who ask, without due consideration, 
at-the same time, that man, while in this life, is in a 
state of probation, and that probation necessarily 
implies a liability to fall into temptation ; and whence 
this liability but from sin 1 

The following fragment, which appears among 
his manuscript papers, will show his views on what 
he considered the real state of a true Christian, or, as 
he calls him, a " divine worshiper," during bis pil- 
grimage in this life : 

" How those who truly worship God through Jesus 
Christ, are to be regarded in this life. 
"They who profess to be true Christians do not 



prcteqd that they can, of tieraaelves, worship God 
acceptably; tbey <fe not profess to be thus period} 
for they bottom tin* no man of ail the humas &mn 
Ijr^caa worship God acceptably oxcepl through.Jesoa 
Christ If any ooerthen is a tree diseipte o£ Christ, 
fee man believe that he cannot of himself perform 
tfaewUJ of God aright Butthi* is on nhope, that, <m 
amount of Christ, we, like dutiful children, nay &• 
, accounted troe wonbjpeiB before God our Father.* 
The following eoMespendeooe toe well illustrates 
the grttwinfc piety of Babajee, and his ineraattag 
desire of assfolnoss, to be omitted* The letter to 
Mr. Graves appear* hereoaly ia fragment, as I am 
unable to get the original: 


* To the most excellent Allen Sahib, blessed of 
Grod through Jesus Christ, Babajee, a door-keeper of 
the house of God, who stands at the door humbly 
beggiftg for the bread and water of life, sendethr greet* 
ing. I entreat that yon will send me a letter of in- 
struction and exhortation, that a poor servant of 
Jesus* Christ may be confirmed m the true faith. 
The chief intelligence which I have to communicate 
ia, that, my love of this world is, by the exercise of 
faith in Jesus Christ, continually diminishing, and 
that my lore to God is increasing more and more, 
and that my old man is, on account of sin, crucified 
with the body of Christ. I confide myself entirely 

to him. I take hold of th* hand of my heavenly 
Esther. Whithersoever he leadftth, there .wilt I go: 
All the right feelings which 1 have are of the Holy 
Spirit I search the gospel of Jesua Ohqst, and 
daily examine myself concerning what I do, and 
whatl ought to do. I am distressed on account of 
mo y and repent, and daily aide of Qod forgiveness for 
aU my past sins. As the watchman puts on his 
armor, and vigilantly perfcnqs his duty, so I put 
on the armor of self-examination, and daily en- 
deavarto watch over myself. I Ihtty hetteya that 
I cannot be saved by my own works, but hy faith in 
Jesus Christ. This is my hope. Formerly I was 
an adulterer, false, deoeitful, and' an idolater. In 
these things I then took delight ; but now, through 
the grace of Jesus Christ, I am disgusted, yea, I hate 
them. Now I love whatever I believe to be pleasing 
to God, and hate what is offensive to him. I en- 
deavor to avoid what is forbidden in the sacred 
Scriptures, I pray and implore the assistance of 
God, and search the Scriptures daily, that I may be 
able to give instruction, according to the command 
of Christ. I gratefully acknowledge the loving- 
kindness of God, and am not unmindful of the kiwi* 
ness of those by whose instrumentality I have been 
converted. The instructions of Graves Sahib) that 
true worshiper of God, are particularly,gratefiil to 
me ; for by them the knotty doubts of the mind 
are solved, and the h$a*t gradually is wad* put* 


By Us meais my soul was first distressed on account 
of sin ; by faith in Jesus Christ I was again mad* 

u Since leaving Bombay for Ahinednuggur, I hav* 
instructed my wife in the word of God. Before the 
'death bf Mr; Hefvey she reeled me, and scornfcrily 
rejected Christ. From that time she became* pen- 
itent, began to pray, and asked baptism. I hope her 
heart is now renewed. 

"In the latter part of June I made a short preach- 
ing tour, when if visited fire or seven Tillages', and 
t&M the people of Jesus Christ. I now feel that if I 
am to lite long- in this world, I desire to lite only 
for Christ. If I am to- go to another world, I desire 
to live with him for ever there. 

11 Oh my brother, I eannot love Christ as taught ; 
lor by reason of sin I am weak. While an enemy 
<*f God, he, thrtughinercy, that I might be saved, 
assumed a vile, perishable human body, and did for 
me what I was bound td do for myself. Had I died 
in my sins, and perished, God would stiH be glorified 
in the multitude of his creatures. 1 am indeed 
bound to love God, who is love. May he, who has 
done so much for my salvation, enable me to love 


" I am ignorant, sinful, depraved. By my own 
works I eannot be saved. I east myself into the 
arms of God my Father. If it be his will, he wiU 

save me, If bt do not save rae, I ea&ao* be saved, 


90 Lira* 70 WU JLUEH. 

If be da not kqep me from evil, I must &U ia*» 

" Brothers Dejaba and Moraba are witfc you* 
Coafirm them in the right way. I desire that they 
may well instruct the Hindoo people. I pray that 
they may be new mm. To teach us who are igno- 
rant, to confirm us jn the right way, and bring us to 
believe on Jesus Christ, is your proper work* We 
are infants, and must have the milk of the word. 
We cannot bear strong meat if you give it us. 
Wherefore feed us with milk, and we shall, by little 
and little, be strengthened into manhood, and, be* 
coming men, we may be fed with meat, Then shall 
we become strong in the faith, aud be saved by 
Jesus Christ. May peace and comfort from the 
Triune God, Father Son, and Holy Ghost, bq with 
you for ever, AmeiK 

«0 God! merciful Father, I am sinful, igno- 
rant, and foolish ; I have written, because my bro- 
ther desired it ; but I have not been able to write ia 
a proper manner. I desire that this letter may not 
be useless, I ask not on my own account, but for. 
the sake of Jesus Christ, that the writing of thia 
letter may be of some utility." 

The following extract of a letter to Mr. and Mrs. 
Graves, is too characteristic to be omitted : 

« To the Rev. Mr. Graves, well-wisher of our 

urns to xx. eatvss. 

people^ and td Madam Graves, both of the same pa- 
rent ia Christ, I, Christian, Babajee, and my wife, 
write. Peace and comfort from our Lord Jesus 
Christ be with you. Amen. 

"We are tender plants, planted through the 
mercy of Jesus Christ, by your hands. That these 
plants may grow, become trees, and bear much fruit, 
they must be moistened at the roots, and sprinkled 
with water from, %b6ve. I write unto yon, that, 
from your instrumentality, we may derive assist- 
ance, whereby we may increase in love and faith, 
and bring forth fruit, double, treble, quadruple, and 
a thousand fold. 

" Yfo were organized into a Christian church 
on the 4th March, 1833* Dajaba was chosen dea* 
, cod, and myself elder of the church. I mention be* 
low the members of the church. Farwuttee, a 
Purbbeeft ; Audee, a Brahmanee ; myself, a Brah* 
man ; Dojaba, a Purbhoo ; Myntbaee, a foreigner ; 
Hkabayee, of the Kamatfiee caste; Eashaba, Kon- 
dooba, Bheekya, and Gopal. These, with the ex* 
ception of myself and wife, and Dajaba, have be* 
come Christians since you left us," 

Notwithstanding the numerous extracts which 
have already been given of Babajee's letters^ I hope 
the following will not be deemed unworthy of pent-* 
sal. It breathes, in a few lines, more. of the spirit of 
the writer than any letter or communication which 
I have been aWf to procure. You here see the 


friend, 4he brother, tbe Christian) and, I had-almost 
4Mdd, the zealous apostle, animated in his work by 
motto* the most noble which can warm the heart 
of man ; and exhorting- hie brother in Christ to bro- 
therly lore, to self-denial, diligences humility, and 
fervency in tbe work of the Lord. The concise and 
animated style, the simple language, as well as the 
feeavenly spirit which pervade the letter, wfH afford 
the reader a pleasing specimen of what Babajee- was 
in his daily deportment among the crooked and 
perverse generation by which he was surrounded. 

Dajaba, tbe person to whom the letter is ad- 
dressed, had been received into the Christian church 
more than two years before. He is of the Purbhoo 
caste, a man of very respectable takfets, who was 
formerly a school teacher, but; subsequently to his 
baptism, a superintendent of schools, and an astibt- 
ant missionary in Bombay. He is a man of cold 
temperament, and has never manifested any pecu* 
Har interest hi missionary labors. In his deportment 
and intercourse among his idolatrous countrymen; 
he has, for aught we know, been regular and exem- 
plary, but deficient id moral courage and zed for 
the salvation of others. This may have arisen, in 
part, from early persecutions which he suffered, not 
only from his immediate friends, but from the peo- 
ple in Bombay. He was one* beaten in thesffestS; 
and shamefully abused. ^ 

If was thought advisable that he should, for a 







time, be removed to Ahmednuggur, id hope that, by 
being connected witb Bahajee, and being removed 
from his former circumstances, he might acquire 
more fortitude and zeal, and thereby become a more 
efiioteat helper. Dnriog Babajeefe life, we had high 
hopes that those anticipations would be realised 
Since that time, I know not that there has been any 
change for the better. He is sober and regular in 
bis habits, and willing to follow as he is led, but 
•hows no desire to do more than his prescribed duty, 
as a servant fulfils his task. 


" Babajee, a servant of the Lord Jesus Christ by the 
will of God our Saviour, and of the Lord Jesus Christ 
our hope, to Dajaba a beloved child o{ God through 
faith; grace, mercy, and peace, humility, pardon, 
joy, and comfort, be to you from God our Father, 
and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 

" Dajaba, my beloved brother, the letter which 
you so kindly sent me by Mr. Read, was received in 
good time* I cannot express the pleasure which I 
jfelt in the perusal of it. By such letters my faith in 
Christ will be strengthened, 

" God has begotten us through the Holy Ghost, 
according to his purpose, and on account of the 
righteousness of Jesus Christ: therefore we are 
dearer to each other than brethren. Among brothers 
there is often strife, deception, mutual abuse, unfaith- 

M Q0SaWl*S. 

fulness, disputes about their fathers? {mprty. But 
aawng as, who have beM bom of tfc* HoJjr Spirit, 
there must be no deception., or strife, oncoyetou sneo s. < 
We must heaome g ma*m$ * through Jesus Christ; 
not, however, weh gosa w e o sas are daily seen about 
us here. We most be true gosawees; that is, have j 
the mastery orer our passions; We must eradicate 
art cast from us aft worldly hopes* and hope only in 
God, a&d lear&ourselves entirely in his hands : • then 
God, oar Father, will, through Jesus Christ, account 
us as innocent You observed, my brother, in yout 
letter, (and it is in accordance with the Christian ' 
shaatras,) that "we are the body of Christ," and | 
ought therefore to love obb another. 

"Above all! my brother, read much, pray much, * 
be humble, communicate instruction, rebuke with 
soft words any thing wrong which you may discover 
in our brethren or sisters ; and, by the grace of God, 
peace be with you." 

, . « 

The following letter was addressed to Mr, Grews, 
while recently in America. He has kindly famed 
me with a translation of the original, and allowed 
me to publish it. 

♦ A gosawee is a devotee who ha* forsaken tha world, somaboiil 
almost naked, bis body besmeared with ashes, lives on toe charity 
of the people* and pro fes s es to be vary holy. tts pretends to instrnet 
the people in a knowledge of God ; bnt realty does no more than to 
ppcat the names of the gods, and mutter over soma unintelligible 
jargon, which the stupid populace suppose to be muntras or incan- 



I - 


babajee's LETTEft. 

"Out well-wither and inspected firther, Mr. 
Graves, and respected mother, Mrs. Graves, Baba- 
jee, a servant of Jesus Christ, with his wife, pre- 
sents a great salutation, and begs te write a letter of 
respect. We have given ourselves an offering, 
through Christ, into the hand of Ood the Father ; 
and, through faith, by the Spirit, we remain in the 
hope of being justified by the righteousness of Jesus 
Christ. And we who are new-born, fere like igno- 

I rant children ; but may we become mature in faith, 
and stand against the wiles of the devil, the dan* 
derer, to fight against him ! May God array us with 
his heavenly armor ! that is, may he bind our loins 
about with troth ; pot upon us the breast-plate of 
righteousness, and.&u** *ur .feet to be shod with 

» the proparaiioBiof the gospel of peace : and, abb?* 
all, put into offr hands the shield ef feitb, where- 
with we may b* abb to quench all the fiery darts of 
the wicked one. May he also put upon our heads 
the helmet of salvation, and put into onr hands the 

* sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God ! 

t And may he keep us, always praying with all 
prayer and supplication, at all times in the Spirit ! 

f And for the same purpose, that we may be awake 
with all diligence, in prayer for all saints* We ask 
yon both to remember us, as well as yourselves, in 


prayer to God. May thaw be peace aad love, wiA 
frith, among all the brethren, from God the Father, 
and the Lord Jesus Christ. May grace be with all 
who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. 


" Please pfeaent to the church the salutation of 

me, a Men one." 




Hiodootfm debasiaf to the miaxl— Theological papers fflostratiaf 
BabaWs mode of thinking.— The occasion of writing these.-* 
Praois of creation.- Existence of God-eternity of God— Hindoo 
notions of God. 

I have referred to Babajee's conversation and 
writing on theological subjects. The inquiring 
reader wUl desire to be informed more particularly 
what was the mode of thinking and the manner of 
reasoning of a man, who had for forty years been 
fed on the fooleries of Hindoo superstition. He had 
drawn in, with his mother's milk, the deadly bttie of • 
idolatry. All his early impressions, all his notions 
of right and wrong, were formed from a false stand- .„ 
aid. A* forty years old he begins to reason — finds ^ 
that all his notions, feelings 1 , and sentiments concern* 1 
ing religion and moral doty, are wrong ; he finds ' 
bis heart corrupt, his understanding darkened, his < 


conscience stnpified, and/all the laborious and cost* 
ly expedients which -he had used to remedy the evil 
of which *ho was at times conscious, unavailing. All 
Aat had Ween done was to be undone, and every 
thing now remained to be done. 1 know it is im- 
possible for one feared in a Christian land, folly to 
«Btimate the 'influence which a heathen education 
must exert on Elemental faculties, and the moral 
feelings of the idalator. We talk, in Christendom, 
smd very wisely, too,- of the infinite advantage of 
early instilling into the young mind pure principles 
of morality, and correct notions about religion ; and 
when we contrast the character of the man th«S 
taught, with that of the man whose childhood was 
aperit in the hatints of tofidetity* or in the nursery of 
thoughtless gayetiy, and the contempt of aH mortl 
obligation^ wo see a 4 M 8 iton c0 so striking, astogiv* 
tis some remote notions <tf< what must be the infln^ 
enoe^ olf the ^dtteiitten received by a Hindoo cMHt 
Bat it mart not \t* forgotten) that the most profligate 
family 4n all Christendom, are under many r* 
Strain* which weimpesed by Christianity; They 
ase not debased* to worship a reptile or a stone. 
T&ey have many right views of the character of 
God; andi of the general- obligations of man to regard 
his commands. These eanhot fail to produce some 
influence; though latent it may be, on the mind. 
They have, at least > many good maxims, and good 

customs, resulting from Christianity. These things 



give the worst man in a Christian land an advan- 
tage over the best in a heathen. 

These remarks will enable the reader more just- 
ly to appreciate the following specimens of Babajeefe 
theological views. I add them, not for the merit 
which they contain in themselves! but, as I have 
done many other things in this memoir, to show, fox 
the encouragement of the friends of this mission, 
what a bigoted Hindoo may become, under the 
teachings of the Holy Spirit ; and, seeing this, thai 
Aey way give more liberally, and pray more fer- 
vently, that God would supply the place of his de- 
parted servant with a thousand as faithful and 


The occasion which gave rise to the following 
papers oa theological subjects, and the means which 
he pooMssed of writing them, will not be deemed nib 
worthy of notice. Babajee, previous to his conver- 
sion, poasesaed a general and a theoretical know- 
ledge of Christianity. But it was no w deeurable ibat 
h* should be put on a course of study which should 
x enlarge and discipline bis mind, and at the same 
time improve his heart, and prepare him for a wide 
field of usefulness. His attention had, from the 
first, been, principally, directed to the reading of the 
New Testament, and such parts of the Old Testa- 
ment as had been translated. He had been encou- 
raged to write letters to his friends abroad, add like- 
wise to express his religious views and feelings in 


writing on different topics. But it was thought thai 
be required to be put on a more systematic course; 
and, for this purpose, theological and other questions 
were proposed to him by Mr. Graves, to which he 
was desired to furnish answers in writing. As se- 
veral of these papers were preserved, I have thought 
a, translation of them worthy a place in his memoir. 
It may be supposed by some that these papers 
contain thoughts too matured for the mind of an 
* untutored 9 heathen. A remark, here, may remove 
any suspicion that the translator has been too par- 
tial to his teacher, his pupil, and afterwards his fel- 
low-laborer. A Hindoo Brahmun is not an untu- 
tored heathen ; and Babajee possessed, in addition 
to the ordinary Brahminical learning, much know- 
ledge of the Christian religion. It is true, that the 
Brahmuns possess but a very little true science; 
and it is equally true that Babajee had but a specu- 
lative acquaintance with Christianity. But the false 
phiosophy and the subtle metaphysics of the former, 
and the general Christian knowledge of the latter! 
presuppose, in Babajee, a sort of mental discipline, 
and a kind of mental discrimination, which gave 
him a mind of a very different caste from that of jut 
Esquimaux or a Hottentot 

It may excite some curiosity to know from what 
source Babajee derived his arguments on the follow- 
ing subjects. They are strictly the results of his 
own reflections, aided by the views which he derived 

n» O T"*> ^T O X * 
£j$J*\ v,_/='' J-J9 



in conversation with others. He could neither seed 
nor speak Eoglish, nor had he access to books in his 
own language on any of these topics; consequently 
he was thrown for his resources, principally, if not 
entirely, on his own mind ; and hence, though his 
ideas are not new to the theologian, we may claim 
originality for them as it respects their author. 

Babajee, for the most part of the *unte when not 
absent with me on preaching tours*' bad* portion of 
each day which be might employ in study or wri- 
ting, lie rose early of a morning ; attended to his 
domestic concerns ; visited our native schools from 
air to eight ; and was present at owr religion* ser- 
vices about half past eight, in which he generally 
■took a part or wholly conducted. On these occa- 
sions, the members of our native church, the inmates 
*>f the poor asylum, and all in any way connected 
with, or dependent on its, were required to be pre- 
sent. Here Babajee made some of his happiest e£ 
flits, in imparting, religions instruction* The con- 
temptuous Brahmnn, whcee aneer he oenkUnot bat 
sometimes feel, was seldom present ; ahd he would, 
unrestrainedly, throw his whole ssul into the ess*, 
cises of the occasion. At the close of &is senate, 
which continued about an bourv he went to this asy- 
lum to distribute the daily allowance to thsipoor. 
While distributing to these wretched befogs the 
meat that perisbeth, he was always careful to impart 
the food of the soul, which etadOreth to evtslsstilf 



He frequently spent an hour at the asylum, 
sometimes in quieting the ungrateful murmurs of 
those, who, although they had been taken from 
the streets when starving, or begging a miserable 
existence, but were now well fed and clothed, were 
continually importuning him for something more, 
And practising every art of deception to induce him 

to intercede for an increase of their allowance. 


Sometimes he was devising means for their comfort, 
by teaching them how to economize in their domestic 
affairs-; but more frequently he was with the sick 
and the infirm, praying witli them, and endeavoring 
to impart to their dark minds a ray of divine light, 
to guide their exit from their present wretched state, 
to an unfading inheritance beyond the grave. He 
exerted a most happy influence among the inmates 
of the asylum. They loved him as a parent, and re- 
vered him as a spiritual teacher. 

He usually returned to his house about half past 
ten, and prepared for breakfast, which he took about 
eleven. This is a very usual hour of taking the 
first meal in India. The natives of the country not 
unfrequently do their day's work before they eat. 
During the heat of the day Babajee was generally 
at liberty to employ his time in his own house, ex- 
cept when I had occasion for his services to assist 
me in some department of my studies in the Mahrat- 
ha language. To him I was indebted for the most 

essential aid, not only in the prosecution of such 

9 # 


studies, but in the acquisition of a gteat mass of me* 
ful knowledge respecting the manners, customs^ and 
euperstkioos of his benighted countrymen. 

At five o'clock, he accompanied mt into the 
bazar, or to one of our preaching places, for the pan- 
poeeof addressing the people on the subject of Chris- 
tianity, and of distributing, tracts and books. Theae 
irregular exercises, in which Babajee always render- 
ed essential assistance, generally continued about 
AH hour and a half* Babajee. had become an out- 
cast by his profession of Christianity ; and so itmfr 
orate was the prejudice against bimon this- account, 
.that he could only act as my helper*; , He could do 
nothing of himself, When the assembly had . hem 
collected, and I had gone on at some length in ihe 
•abject of discourse, I would reft* *to hknn&aperaaa 
who wouldJ&iifA what iJtad . begun.. < Tbe people 
would then regard hjm as .« speaking my words;" and 
would hear him with It* mroe, consideration a* they 
bad listened to me. He did not, hewwer^ exp* 
rienee the same difficulty when giving instruction 
in a more private way. Pevsona of fii* ftoquawtr 
ance > and not unfrequentiy Bratoun&:M>frag<e*fctt^ 
were in the habit of coming, to his house* where hi 
held tho most free and unres*rred d* cushions on 
religious subjects, and, tenderly and vehemently 
urged on them the claims pf Christianity, and d&an? 
fully refuted the error* of Bfahnmniwn. Them 
irere, I bplieve* many, mieng hia numerous viaiftan* 


who highly respected him, not merely at a learned 
•Jkfebmun, bat as a oaoere and detiont we n bip et of 
the true God. 

Babajee usually spent an hour Witk ns of an ere- * 
mug, at our family devotion*, and in conversation on 
the Scriptures, or on Christian duty and praetioa 
After, which hef retired to his own houao, where, at 
tentimes, till a late hour of the night, lie wMBbmti Christian hymns of hie own compnsttioo. 
H* possessed a oheeafttl heart , and *was for the most 
ftti* of tbe<iime* a happy Christian. 

With the above mutatis, on the occasion whack 
gave rise to the following paper*, and the resources 
.which he possessed for writing them, and the man- 
gier of epiployingtotioie^the'Wadbr wiU be enabled 
tbe more justly 40 #ppr#csafe thejspecimeas of con* 
portion and of thought which llwre vakjmm 

Pratf* of Crvtfion vitfmU the md of jSbrtpfctf-a. 

"If ypu say the universe was from eternity, let 
naa aa}c, are not men, beasts, birds, <fcc, of the crea* 
lion? Surely, these are a part of creation. This 
being allowed, who will say thttf tbe unmsse is 
from eternity ? Thm, which are a part of the un* 
verse, are not from eternity. Furthermore, if aH 
things are from eternity, how comes it to pass that 
ttjey are subjeet to phange t Hence it appears *faa* 
the universe was created. 

104 noon or casino*. 

"My second proof is this: It is known to be & 
principle that when water is made turbid by agita- 
tion, the heavier particles will, by the power of their 
own gravity, fall, and collect at the bottom, while the 
light particles rise. According to this principle the 
earth seems to have been formed. For, by digging 
into the earth there are found to be layers of earth, 
stone, <fcc, one above another. The same is found 
to be true on the tops of the highest mountains. On 
the summits of these mountains are found petrifac- 
tions of shells and fish. Hence it appears not only 
that the earth was created, but that it was formed 
out of a thick watery consistence. 

"The third argument is drawn from the im- 
port of the word, trustee (universe). This is a 
significant term, viz. that which is created. The 
term srustee, cannot, therefore, be applied to that 
which is from eternity. If this term may properly 
be applied only to things which appear, then it is 
evident they were created. 

' + "Fourthly, it is said in the Rig-vada, ( before the 
creation of the universe the Spirit existed alone.' 
Hence it appears that the universe is not eternal, but 
was created by Jehovah, who is from everlasting; to 
everlasting. With him there is neithet beginning 
nor end. 

" The fifth argument is this : If the world had 
from eternity, the earth would ere this have 


become one great plain, by means of rains. Bat we 
see many very high mountains." . 

Existence of God* 

" Do you say there is no God ? Then hear : — 
1 exist, you exist, and we are conscious df oar exist- 
ence. We have the faculty of speaking, hearing, 
walking, and thinking ; we have understanding, re* 
flection, and knowledge. Whence are all these ? 
And who formed us in the womb ? Who protected 
and nourished us then ? Our mother had no such 
power. Who then did preserve us? Who after- 
wards nourished our limbs, by means of food taken 
in at the month ? Did our mother ? Who forms the 
chicken in the shell ? If you cannot answer, I will 
tell you. He who gave us existence and protected 
ns in the womb — he alone is God, and self existent 

"I mention- another proof— by whose power is 
this globe kepi in the firmament ? If you say by 
Mfc <*wn, then I reply, the earth is hut an inanimate 
tody, «ud it does not eontaiN in itself the power of 
remaining in the expanse of the heavens. If you 
throw a stone or a piece of earth into the^air, does it 
by any power in itself remain in the air, or does it 
fell ? By whose power then is the earth sustained ? 
U youeadnot reply, I will tell you. It is upheld by 
th* Almighty God. This is a dbser protf of the ex<. 
jstmoe of God. 
-.. M The skill dispkyed ia the. contrivance of the 

100 rrjRRirmr of ood. 

human body, furnishes another argument of the ex- 
istence of God. For example, the joints of the hands 
and feet will not turn back. Here appears a happy 
design. Were it otherwise, one could not lay hold 
of an object with the hand, or do any kind of busi- 
ness. He made the mouth, but did not put it in the 
hinder part of the head, for whatever is put into the 
mouth must be put in by the hand, in front Eyes 
were made for the body ; and in the eye are films, or 
humors, in which there is no blood, but water. 
The design displayed in this appears to be, that 
the light must enter through the water, and by this 
means external objects be made to appear. The 
eyes were not placed in the back port <>f the head — 
for, in that case, no one could see what he does with 
his hands. 

" God gave to man two ears. These he did not 
place in the forehead, or in any place but on the side 
of the head. In this there appears design, that he 
may hear sound from every direction. Hence, frosi 
the skill and intelligence displayed in the construc- 
tion of the human body, it appears there is aa infi- 
nite and all-wise Being." 

The eternity of Ood. 

" Ho— rilling exists, and therefore something must 
have existed without a beginning ; and if that some- 
thing exists without a beginning, then will it not exist 
eternally ? From this something, the universe ori- 


gpnated. For it is certain there is no power in the 
material universe to create itself. Hence, it appears 
that there was an agent. Moreover, all things in the 
universe continue to move on with the same' regu- 
larity and precision as they formerly did. From 
this it is evident there must still be a governor ; and 
if He is y and was, he will be a governor to all eter- 
nity. Another argument which might be adduced, 
is, that God is a Spirit, and therefore will not cease 
to be." 

The above is the commencement of a series of 
papers which Babajee began to write on theological 
subjects. He had not written on the moral attri- 
butes of God. But the specimens here given will 
suffice to show what were his notions of a Dfetty ; 
and when the above views of the Supreme Being 
are compared with the vague, incongruous, and un- 
worthy notio w i ntart ained by the Hindoos in gene* 
ral; and when it is considered that these are the 
views of one who but a few months ago emerged from 
the depths of a moat debasing system of idolatry, the 
pious reader will magnify the grace of God, which 
alone brought him from natures darkness into his 
marvelous light The following extracts are taken 
principally from " Mr. Ward's view of the Hindoos,' 9 
aed as they tery correctly illustrate the indefinite 
and unworthy notions of the idoktot* of India in 
reference to the Deity, aa well as the revolting cha* 


raoter of their own inferior divinities, I here quote 
them, in order to bring out the contrast 

" No question occur* so frequently in the Hindoo 
shastras as this : what is God? to know whether he 
exists or not, page upon page has been written, and 
this question has been agitated in every period of 
Hindoo history, whenever two or three pundits-hap 
pened to meet! with a solicitude, bat, at the sane 
time, wkh> an uncertainly, which carries us at onoe 
to the apostolic declaration, ' the world by wisdom 
hnew not God.' Some pundits call him. the. invisible 
and e*er*bieesed ; others conceive of him as possess* 
ing form ; others have the idea that he exists like 
an inconceivably small atqm ; sometimes he is male } 
at other times female; sometimes both male and fe» 
male, prodocpug a world by conjugal union : soma* 
times the elements assume his piaoe, and at othes 
times he ie a deified hera Thus i* this* hundred 
and thirty nalkoas of ftnns, .» or names* *ie nation, 
in die emphatieal language of 8t Parol, has been* 
from agate agej 'feeling *Aer> the Anpteme Beings 
like men groping *in the region and shadow of 
death ;'i and* after so many centuries, the question ii 
m much undetermined as ever, what is God % 

M One day,* in conversation with the Saugskvita 
head pundtt-ef the college of Port William, on the 
sutyeet of God, thia man, who is truly learned ioftm 
own shastras; gave the author, fi*m one of their 

Or THB BBIT7. 109 

feooks, the following parable : ' In a certain country 
4he*e existed a village of blind men, who had heard 
4>f an amazing animal called the elephant, of the 
•shape of which, however, they could procure no 
idea. One day an elephant passed through the 
ylace : the villagers crowded to the spot where {he 
lyuyal was standing ; and one of them seized bis 
trunks another his ear, another his tail, another one 
of his legs. After thus endeavoring to gratify their 
curiosity, they returned into the village, and sitting 
down together, began to communicate their ideas 
on the shape of the elephant to the villagers. The 
man who had seized his trunk said, he thought this 
animal must be like the body of the plantain tree ; 
lie who had touched his ear, was of opinion that he 
was like the winnowing/an ; the man who had laid 
bold of his tail, said, he thought he must resemble 
a snake ; and Jie who had caqght his lqg, declared, 
lie must be like a pillar. An old blind man of some 
judgment was present, who, though greatly perplex- 
ed in attempting to reconcile these jarring notions, 
at length said : You have all been to examine this 
animal ; and what you report, therefore, cannot be 
false. I suppose, then, that the part resembling th* 
plantain tree, must be his trunk ; what you thought 
similar to a fan, must be his ear ; the part like a 
snake, must be the tail ; and that like a pillar must 
he his leg.' In this way, the old man, uniting all 

their conjectures, made out something of the form 



of the elephant. Respecting God, added the pandit, 
we are all blind ; none of us have seen him ; those 
who wrote the shastras, like the old blind man, hare 
collected all the reasonings and conjectures of man- 
kind together, and have endeavored to form some 
idea of the nature of the Divine Being. It is an ir- 
resistible argument in favor of the majesty, simpli- 
city, and truth of the Holy Scriptures, thai nothing 
of this uncertainty has been left on the mind of the. 
most illiterate Christian. However mysterious the 
subject, we never hear such a question started in 
Christian countries : What is God ? 

" The doctrine of a plurality of gods, with their 
consequent intrigues, criminal amours, quarrels, and 
stratagems to counteract each other, has produced 
the most fatal effects on tha minds of men. Can we 
expect a people to be better than their gods ? Bru na- 
na was inflamed with evil desires towards his owa 
daughter. Yishnoo, when incarnate as Bamunu, 
deceived king Bulee, and deprived him of his king* 
dom. Shrorts wife was constantly jealous on ac- 
count of his amours, and charged him with associat- 
ing with the women of a low caste : the story of 
Shiva and Mohinee, a female form of Yishnoo, is 
shockingly indelicate. Yrihusputee, the spiritual 
guide of the gods, committed a rape on his eldest 
brother's wife. Indru was guilty of dishonoring the 
wife of his spiritual guide. Sooryu ravished a vir- 
gin named Koontee. Yunau, in a passion, kicked 


is own mother, who cursed him, and afflicted him 
with a swelled leg, which to this day the worms am 
constantly devouring. Ugnee was inflamed with 
evil desires towards six virgins, the daughters of as 
many sages, but was overawed by the presence of 
his wife. Buluramu was a great drunkard. Vayoo 
waajfeursed by Dukshu for making his daughters 
crooked when they refused his embraces. He is also 
charged with a scandalous connection with a female 
monkey. When Yuroortn was walking in his own 
heaven, he was so smitten with the charms of Oorvu- 
shee, a courtezan, that, after a long contest, she was 
scarcely able to extricate herself from him. Krishnu's 
thefts, wars, and adulteries, are so numerous, thai 
his whole history seems to be one uninterrupted 
series. In the images of Kalee, she is represented 
as treading on the breast of her husband. Lukshmee 
and Luniftwatee, the wives of Yishnoo, were con- 
tinually quarreling. It is worthy of inquiry, how 
the world is governed by these gods more wicked 
than men, that we may be able to judge how far 
they can be the objects of faith, hope, and affection. 
Let us open the Hindoo sacred writings ; here we 
see the Creator and the Preserver perpetually conn 
teractkig each other. Sometimes the Preserver it 
destroying, and at other times the destroyer is pre* 
serving. On a certain occasion Shiva granted to 
the great enemy of the gods, Ravanu, a blessing 
which set all their heavens in an uproar, and drove 


Ike three hundred and thirty millions of gods into a 
state of desperation. Brumha created Koomblra- 
kurmi, a monster larger than this whole island of 
Lunka, bat was obliged to doom him to an almost 
perpetual sleep, to prevent his producing a univer- 
sal famine. This god is often represented as bestow- 
ing a Messing, to remove the effects of which Yish- 
noo is obliged to become incarnate; nayyihese ef- 
fects have not in some cases been removed till all 
the gods have been thrown into confusion, and all 
the elements seized and turned against the Creator, 
the Preserver, and the Reproducer. When some. 
giant, blessed by Brumha, has destroyed the creation, 
Yishnoo and Shiva have been applied to ; bat they 
have confessed that they could do nothing far the 
tottering universe. 

" Reverence for the gods, especially among the 
poor, as might be expected, does not exceed* their 
merits ; yet it is a shocking fact, that language like 
the following should be used respecting what the 
Hindoos suppose to be the providence which go- 
verns the world. When it thunders awfully, respec- 
table Hindoos say, l Oh ! the gods are giving us a 
bad day;' the lowest orders say, l The rascally gods 
are dying. 1 During a heavy rain, a woman of 
respectable caste frequently says, 'Let the gods perish! 
my clothes are all wet.' A man of low cast says, 
c These rascally gods are sending more rain.* 

" In witnessing suoh a state of gross ignorance. 


a subject of infinite moment to men, how forcibly 
• do we feel the truth and the wisdom of the decla- 


ration of the Divine Author of the Christian religion, 
* This is life eternal, to know thee the only true God !' 
"Shiva is represented as ornamented with a 
necklace of skulls, covered with the ashes of a fu- 
neral pile, alighting in cemeteries, and accompanied 
by a train of ghosts and goblins. 1 " 

I cannot better supply the reader with the key to 
the religion, as well as the practice of the Hindoos, 
than by transcribing the following remarks of Mr. 
W. on the doctrine of accountability, as taught in 
the Hindoo writings, and continually reiterated in 
the ears of the people by their religious teachers. 
How any man who has conversed with an intelli- 
gent Hindoo trfo hours, can deny the truth of these 
remarks, I cannot conceive. But, strange as it is, 
Col. Kennedy, who has resided in India many years, 
and written a book on the mythology of the Hindoos, 
says, in reference to the following quotations, '< noth- 
ing can be more erroneous, and I could hope not 
intentionally so, than these remarks of Mr. Ward." 
And in a note to the same work he adds, " I know 
pot with what kind Of Hindoos Mr. Ward conversed) 
but such sentiments are at total variance with the 
clearest principles of the Hindoo religion.' 9 

Remarks ofs uch a character, and from such a 

• See Chapter Xm, Pert II. 


source, although at war with the general experience 
of Europeans, and contradicted by the concession of 
every native who has occasion to speak on the sub- 
ject of accountability, are no more extraordinary 
than the testimony which the same author bears in 
another part of his book to the " virtue, the amia* 
bleness, and the delicacy of Hindoo females." I 
know not with what kind of Hindoo females the Col. 
was conversant, but such sentiments are at total 
variance with the clearest exhibitions of Hindoo 

There are reasons, which I need not here repeat, 
why a man of Col. Kennedy's character and views, 
should feel so much complacency in the natives of 
this country. In reading his Mythology, the Chris- 
tian unavoidably feels that his partialities are on the 
side of Hindooism. He gives us but very doubtful 
reason to believe, that, were the prevalence of Chris- 
tianity, or the predominance of the &ith of the Brah- 
muns, left to his choice, he would not prefer the lat- 
ter, He is by no means, however, singular in his 
views on this subject. The number of Europeans, 
(Christians by name, and exalted above the misera- 
ble people about them only by the reflex influence of 
Christianity,) who believe, or pretend to believe, that 
the Hindoo would not be the gainer by exchanging 
the abominations of Brahminism for the "pure and 
undefiled religion of Jesus Christ," is fer from being 
small So true it is, that only a licentious religion 



can suit a licentious people. Strip Christianity of 
its uncompromising demands, and neither the hea- 
then, the Mussulman, or the baptized infidel, will feel 
any dislike for it ' Mr. Ward says : 

" The Hindoo writings farther teach, that it is 
the Great Spirit which is diffused through every 
form of animated matter : that actions of every kind 
are his : that he is the charioteer, and the body the 
chariot : that it is the highest attainment of human 
wisdom to realize the fact, that the human soul and 
Bramhu are one and the same. By this doctrine, all 
accountability is destroyed, and liability to punish* 
ment rendered preposterous. How often has the author 
heard it urged by the most sensible Hindoos, that the 
moving cause of every action, however flagitious, is 
God : that man is an ihstrument upon Which God 
plays what tune he pleases. Another modification 
of this doctrine is that of fate, unchangeable destiny ; 
embraced, without a dissentient voice, hy all the 
Hindoos. Thus the Deity, on his throne, is insulted 
as the author of all primes*, and men are emboldened 
to rush forward in die swiftest career of ini- 

The Hindoos are the most cold-blooded fatalists 
in the world. Every occurrence in life is the result of 
dire necessity. If they are prosperous, it is fate. If 
they are in distress, it is fate. To lie, cheat, or steal, 
is fate. To be idle, dissipated, impoverished, and 
imprisoned, is fate. The poor sufferer apparently 


feels no remorse that his own sin has brought misery 
on him; He only curses his hard fate. The thief 
or the robber is detected, convicted, and condemned 
to prison or chains for life. He apparently never 
regards himself as suffering the just penalty of the 
violated law. He submits with the uttermost cool- 
ness to his lot, as being the irresistible decision of 
fate, over which he could have no control, and in 
which he has bo responsibility. The murderer is 
arraigned, tried, and sentenced to the gallows. He 
confesses no guilt ; and manifests the most perfect 
indifference. The intention, the act of murder, the 
detection) the sentence, and the execution, are all 
alike the consequences of incorrigible fate, in which 
he had no direction, agency, or responsibility. De- 
daring his innocency to the last, he goes to the 
gallows as coolly as he would go to his dinner; and 
launches into eternity as regardless of futurity as 
the brutes. All with him is fate. The application 
which natives frequently make of this term is some- 
times really laughable. A child, who was usually 
very peevish and noisy, was one day crying inces- 
santly, to the great annoyance of all ifi the house. 
A hamal (bearer) who took careof him, and was much 
attached to him, hearing the complaints which were 
brought against his little charge, felt called on to de- 
fend him from all censure on that subject. " The 
child is not to be blamed for crying," said he, *' it is 
his fate to cry* 

ON JVtmiCATlON. 117 



Ttmtiaem on Jas<iflcatioii.—R«g«nerttion.— Repentance.— The atone- 
ment and operation of the Spirit.— Neceaarty of the Holy Spirit 

The following treatise on Justification was writ- 
ten by Babajee some months before bis death, and 
was read as a sermon to our native congregation on 
the Sabbath. I insert it without mutilation, except 
the omitting of numerous quotations of Scripture, 
with only a reference to the chapter and verse, pre- 
suming, on the patience of the reader, that he will 
not dislike to see a detailed specimen of Babajee's 
views on this essential point of divinity. The cate- 
chetical form of the first part of it would not appear 
unnatural to a Hindoo audience. Babajee's views 
on the doctrine of the depravity of man, will appear 
in connection with the treatises on Justification* and 
Regeneration. Hence, nothing is here inserted ex-* 
pressly on that subject. 


u How are you, my brethren, to be justified ? 

" Ans. We shall be justified by the law of 

" Q. Men and brethren, do you walk according 
to the law of works ? 

119 A TBXAT18B 

" A. As our fathers did, so do we. Be it so ; 
but it seems to me that your fathers were deceitful, 
fraudulent, untrue, knavish, perverse; adulterers, 
lascivious, lax in the performance of all prescribed 
rites ; and, in a word, like ko run gee fruit, which ex- 
ternally appears exceedingly beautiful, but is full of 
deadly poison. For, according to what you say, we 
are to infer that you expect salvation by walking in 
the path which your forefathers trod. But do I not 
see among you many who bear a character similar 
to the one I have above described? Are you not 
then condemned by the law ? 

" Why do you cast off that God who has given 
the commandment, ' Thou shalt have no other gods 
before me ;' even the true, the pure, the merciful 
God, the Almighty Creator, Supporter, and Pro* 
tector of the universe, run after demons, such as 
Khundaba, Mhussaba, Kanhoba, Zuree-Murree, 
(Cholera Morbus)* and such like demons ? Why cUv 
you make, and then worship, the images of gods. Do 
you suppose that the divinity resides in the image, 
and not in another place. God is every where, just 
as much as he is in the image or idol. 

" That God, who is a spirit, and pervades every 
thing, has given the following command ; ' Thou 
shalt not worship idols, nor bow down 1 to them noj 

'* See Chap. IX. Part II., where an account of the superstitions 
respecting the cholera is given somewhat in detail. 


serve them.' Such a holy command as this you 
transgress, and, at the same time say, ' we are holy.' 
Alas ! alas ! What wonder ! Lax in the performance 
of all moral and religions duties, even such as are 
prescribed in your Own shastras, how many of you 
are like the fruit of the colocynth, or bitter apple, 
having a fair outside, but inwardly, good for no* 
thing. You strut through the bazar, the village, the 
town, or the country, ridiculing and abusing any 
one, who speaks the truth, or gives instruction 
concerning the truth. Who are you that you should 
do this ? Alas ! Ye men of Nuggur, I tell you the 
truth ; he that speaks truth, and instructs concern* 
ing the truth, he is of God ; and whatever he says, 
this is of God. He declares to you the message of 
God, and this message you ought to regard ; but you 
not only ridicule the message of the most high God, 
but abuse the messenger. Do you imagine that God 
will not punish for this ? Think not so. Wherever 
there is sin, there will be the wrath of God ; there* 
fore flee from the coming wrath : for, if you do not 
escape, his wrath will surely fall on you. Flee 
now ; there is a sure way of escape. There is but 
one way, and that way is Jesus Christ. There is 
but one time, and that time is this life, this birth, as 
you say. Beware, escape ; I bring to you the mes- 
sage. The wrath of God is coming on sinners ; 
therefore awake, and flee for your life. 

" Men and brethren, search again, how are you 


to escape the punishment of sin 1 How are you to 
be justified ? You have no righteousness of your 
own ; you cannot obey the law of God. You are 
weak ; your nature is sinful. You, and I, and all 
men, sin in word, deed, and thought We may do 
some things, it is true, which are in conformity to 
the law of works ; but there is no merit from such 
acts. Just as if one were, according to the Hindoo 
shastras, to practise religious austerities for lacks of 
years, and then a single sinful thought were to enter 
the mind, the merit attached to the whole would be 
lost. So it is written in the word of God, ' by the 
deeds of the law you cannot be justified.' So«also it 
is said in one of the vadas. [The proof texts here 
quoted, are, Romans 3 : 20. 5 : 13, 20. 7 : 7. <Gala- 
tians 3: 10, 11.] Having failed, therefore, my bre- 
thren, to do the works of the law, and being ene- 
mies of God, how are you to be justified V " Arts, 
We shall be justified by practising the upasuna 
margu* (the way of salvation by the -worship of 
images, Brahmuns, <fca &c.) and by the worship of 
the Supreme God." " But, if you cannot (as has 
been shown) keep the law of works, in regard to 
penance, &a, then how are you to gain merit by 

* There are three ways of obtaining blessedness after death, says 
the Brahman; one by works, as bathing, penance, feeding Brah- 
muns ; one by worshiping idols, deified men, the host of neaven, 
and the like: and the other by pure meditation, and the worship of 
God spiritually, without the aid of an external form. The first of 
these is a stepping stone to the second, and the second to the third. 
Hence the distinction made between the law of works and the 
raw of worship, or the upasuna margu. 


worship either of idols, or (by the worship) of God. 
Will God regard such worship ? He will not regard 
it. God is, indeed, worthy to be venerated and 
adored; and he must be worshiped, served, and 
obeyed ; but while you are sinful, and continue to 
commit sin, the worship which you render unto 
God will only incense him the more. Alas ! alas ! 
sin can never be pardoned in that way, or right- 
eousness acquired, or hell escaped. What is to be 
done ? Alas ! alas ! brethren, if you cannot work out 
a righteousness for yourselves ; and if without right- 
eousness you cannot be saved, then whence is right- 
eousness to come? If this be your inquiry, then 
hear, and I will speak : ' But now the righteousness 
of God without the law is manifested, being witness- 
ed by the law and the prophets; that is to say, the 
righteousness of God which is by faith in Jesus, for all 
and unto all who believe, for there is no difference ; 
for all have sinned and come short of the glory of . 
God; being justified freely by his grace, through the 
redemption which is in Christ Jesus.' (Rom. 3 : 21. 
to the end of the chapter ; also, Gal. 2: 16. 21.) Alas ! 
my people, what shall we say to you ? Life is fleet- 
ing away, and going for nought, assays the shlok : 

' Though day and night and even and morn return ; 
Seasons and times their changeless courses run ; 
The monster Death to all his power shall show, 
And cast the wicked down to everlasting wo.' 

Therefore, I beseech you, men and brethren, cast 
off all hope of the w orld ; relinquish the idea of being 

t22 A tMAtlSB 

justified by the deeds of the law or by your own right- 
eousness ; cast aw#y every systeto of your own devi- 
sing, and accept of the Christian religion, which God 
devised for the salvation of the whole human race. 
This is the only suitable religion for man. What is 
religion ? It is that, by the observance of which God 
is propitiated ; that is religion, that is true religion — 
that is the religion ordained of God, for man. And 
the religion ordained by God, and the one by Which 
he may be propitiated, is this ; that Whosoever pro- 
fesses the Christian religion with full purpose of heart, 
and believing that Jesus Christ is the true Saviour, and 
truly repenting of sin, obtains the righteousness of 
Christ : him will God account as righteoiis through 
the righteousness of Jesus Christ. How surpassing- * 
ly great is the mercy of God ! I cannot describe it. 
My only hope is, that God will reckon me as right- 
eous on account of faith in Christ ; as it is written, 
1 To him that worketh not, but believeth oh him 
that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for 
righteousness, even as David also describeth the 
blessedness of the man to whom God imputeth right- 
eousness without works, saying, ( Blessed are they 
whose iniquities are forgiven and whose sins are co- 
vered. Messed is the man to whom the Lord will 
not impute sin.' Do you not desire such bless- 
edness ? or do you despise the goodness and forbear- 
ance of God ? Think not that God is obliged to save 
you, of that he has any need of you. If h£ saves at 


i i , 

all, he will save gratuitously. Christian brethren, 
1 God commendeth his love towards us, that while we 
were yet sinners Christ died for us ; much more then 
being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved 
from wrath through him. For if when we were en- 
emies we were reconciled to God through the death 
of his Son, much more being reconciled we shall be 
saved by his life.' 

"Beloved, the Son of God is the Saviour of the 
world, -and the Son is none other than the great 
Spirit himsejf. If you ask why the Spirit is called a 
Son, then attend, and I will tell you. In one of the 
vadas there is suc.h a passage as this : — The great 
Spirit shall be adored in the person of the Son, 
from which \t appears that God became incarnate 
in the form of the Son of man to save sinners. This 
is Jesus Christ. By the word Son, then, understand 
one who saves from hell. 

" Men and brethren, is there any among the sons 
of men who can save from sin? There is none; for 
that whjch is Ijorn of flesh is flesh. The children 
of this world are disobedient children, but the child 
of the Most High was beloved and obedient. ' Be- 
hold, a voice from heaven said, This is my beloved 
Son in whom I am well pleased ;' and moreover, God 
has said, * Whosoever repents of sin and believes in 
my Son, he shall be justified through the righteous- 
ness of the Son.' Will not God regard his promise?" 


Another address of Babajee contains the follow- 
ing shrewd remarks on the same subject : 

" How can yon expect to be justified by works ? 
Who among you keep the law? Not one. What is 
the nature of the righteousness in which you trust ? 
Your righteousness is, in my opinion, like a counter- 
feit rupee, which has one part silver, and ten parts 
brass, or lead, or tin. If such a rupee be taken into 
the bazar and tried, will it pass for a good one ? No. 
Should a man who had sustained an unblemished 
character from his birth to the present time, commit 
a single theft, and at the same time give largely in 
charity to the poor ; and should the government be 
apprized of it and send sepoys to take him and bring 
him to trial ; and should he begin to say, ( I have 
stolen but once, and have even given the avails of 
this to the poor, therefore discharge me.' Will the 
government liberate him ? No. My friends, yon 
cannot do works which are perfect in the sight of 
the law ; and if the righteousness of the works which 
you perform cannot profit you, then what is your 
condition ? You must have righteousness, and you 
must have the pardon of your past sins. What will 
you do ? how will you obtain righteousness ? If we 
shall go to the Ganges, and there make our residence 
and daily bathe in the sacred stream, shall we be 
free from sin ? Consider the frogs and reptiles which 
have lived in the holy river their whole lives ; but 


they are not yet holy or pure. If holiness were 
copimunicated by bathing in the Ganges, why then 
are not these made holy ? 

" Again ; if any one say that God will justify him 
toho submits to eat the five productions of the cow/ 
I will ask him one question. If you become right- 
eous by using the dung, qr the milk, or the curd, or 
the butter^ or the urine of the cow, why do you not 
say that the cow in which these things reside is 
righteous? Do you regard the cow, which feeds 
from the dunghill, holy ? If she be holy why do you 
not eat her flesh, which is also holy ? Why do you 
not wear her skin, which is holy V 

The extracts which follow will give a summary 
view of Babajee's ideas of regeneration, repentance, 
atonement, and the necessity and operation of the 
Holy Spirit. 

* ¥ 


" * Jeans answering said unto him*, Except a man 
be barn again he cannot see the kingdom of God J 

"All men are sinners, and (herefpre cannot wor- 
ship a holy God acceptably* For a holy. God can 
only be worshiped in holiness and truth. Therefore 

* The sanctity attached to the cow's excrements is truly ridicu- 
lous. Eating her dung and drinking her mine is not unireguently 
done, as a penance, for having transgressed some of their foolish tra- 
ditions, orsoraft injunctions of the Brahmuns ; or, in other words, for 
sin. These excrements are. also held sacred, and used to wash the 
hands and face, or to rub on any part of the body, either as a religious 

136 ftE&EHEKATlOK. 

unless there be a regeneration of the heart, neither 
you, nor I, nor any one, can worship God accepta- 
bly. Without purity of heart no expedient for ob- 
taining eternal blessedness will be of any avail. 
1 Marvel not,' says our Saviour, * that I said unto you, 
ye must be born again.' Reflect, consider ; for with- 
out reflection who can understand ? No one can obtain 
blessedness with God without a clean heart. But' 
the heart of man is full of all uncleanness, as it is 
written in Romans 1 : 29 — 32. Being filled with 
all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covet- 
ousness, maliciousness ; full of envy, murder, de- 
bate, deceit, <fcc. How can a mind rendered impure 
by such things worship the pure God? It cannot 
be. Therefore, from such impurity our minds must 
be cleansed. Ye worshipers of idols, what method 
have you for purifying the heart? Do you say it 
must be done by holy bathing, pilgrimage, religious 
austerity, and the repetition of the names of your 
deities, of charms, (fee, <fcc? In the same shastras in 
which these expedients are prescribed, it is also said, 
( first make the heart holy, then bathe, do penance, 
and the like. 9 Although any one may repeat names, 
mortify his body, dwell in the wilderness, give in 
charity, go on pilgrimage to holy places, wrap him- 
self in meditation, bathe, worship, and sacrifice, if 
his heart be not pure, it is all vain ? These remedies 
can be of no use to sinners in cleansing the heart ; 
and if the heart were once holy, they would not be 



needed; consequently, they are altogether use* 

"It is written (Rom. 1 : 1 3—26) that the wrath of 
God is revealed from heaven, against all ungodliness 
and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in 
unrighteousness : because that which may be known 
of God, is manifest in them : for God hath showed it 
unto them. For the invisible things of him from 
the creation of the world are clearly seen, being un- 
derstood by the things that are made, even his eter- 
nal power and Godhead ; so that they are without 
excuse : because that, when they knew God, they 
glorified him not as God, neither were thankful ; but 
became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish 
heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be 
wise, they became fools ; and changed the glory of 
the uncorruptible God into an image made like to 
corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, 
and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave 
them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their 
own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between 
themselves : who changed the truth of God into a 
lie, and worshiped and served the creature more 
"than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. 
For the same cause God hath given us Hindoos up 
to vile affections. Who among you, my brethren, 
worketh righteousness? No one: as it is written, 
1 there is none righteous no not one. There is none 
that understandeth ; there is none that seeketh after 


xae Mimmm **' 

God. They are all gone out of the way ; they are 
together become unprofitable; there is none that 
doeth good, no not one.' How then can we be 
saved ? You will reply, ' by walking each man ac- 
cording to his own religion.' That every xoan 
ought to walk according to his own religion, (that is, 
according to the system which God ordained for 
him,) and by this means only he will be saved, I fully 
believe ; and that all men may thus walk, I labor, 
. and pray. But you, having cast off this religion 
have adopted another (one ordained of men). There- 
fore I assure you, that, although the professing of 
the true religion should be at the peril of your life, 
. nevertheless the end will be happiness ; and though 
the practice of a false religion be attended with pre- 
sent comfort, the end is fearful. 

" Not only have you renounced your own religion, 
.but you have adopted the religion {the practice) of 
beasts. They eat, drink, sleep, enjoy the female, and 
care only for these things. In like manner you mani- 
fest no concern about your salvation, but only desire 
-to eat, drink, deep, acquire .money and reputation, 
commit adultery, and defraud others/ Hence I 
ask, Is this, the religion of mm or of beasts? Cerjtaicdy 
of beasts. Take ; the goale* of wisdom and examine, 

* The Hindoo hat no idea of relkion as connected with parity of 
heart* They, have much to say of persons being holy or unholy, 

- pore or impure. But as this refers only to ceremonial cleanness, the 
heart has nothing to do with it A liar or adulterer may be pure, if 
he have bathed and performed the requisite rites ; white the man of 

, jmi»0 hwri maybe unholy. 

xsForrANCB. 199 

and you may by this means ascertain whether the 
system which you have chosen be yimr own reli- 
gion, or a foreign one. Do you as£ what I mean by 
man's own religion ? Then hear. That system of 
religion by which God, our Creator, is propitiated, 
is man's own proper religion. Things being thus, 
how think you now your hearts can be made 
clean T 


"The heart of man cannot become holy without 
repentance. If I inquire why you do not repeat, 
some will reply, ' we do repent when we do evil.' 
This may be true. But, again I ask, Is your repent- 
ance genuine repentance? We believe repentance 
is of two kinds, one true and the other false, and 
that it is only by true repentance that the heart is 
made better. Ob this subject let me ask one question ; 
Whenyoti thinkyou exercise repentance toward God, 
do yon from that time hate sin ? And do you from 
that time keep yourselves from sinful practices ? From 
that time do you not entertain sinful desires ? From 
that time do you keep yourselves from lust, anger, 
drunkenness, envy, covetousness, deceit, hypocrisy, 
pride, arrogance, and too much concern for the body ? 
My believing friends, if it be not so with us, then our 
repentance is not accompanied with a hatred for 
sin, but originates only in the fear of punishment 
What is true repentance ? I will now mention some 

1M lnmAiag. 

of the marks of genuine repentance. Th$yareth< 
haired of em, confessing of sin, afyd the forsaking- of 
mm. Such repentance is necessary. But even this 
is not sufficient for salvation. For you have already 
committed sin, and how *re you to escape the just 
punishment of post ^delinquency ? Repentance can 
never appease the wrath of God, which has been 
provoked by your past offences. Do you ask what 
jnore is requisite in order to secure the pardon of 
sin, and how it is to be obtained? Then hear: 
When some one, who, as our substitute, will take on 
biflftfelf the punishment which is due to our offences, 
then the pardon of sin can be obtained. But in the 
whole universe, what such substitute shall we find, 
who has suffered the punishment of otir sins, and 
will free' us from guilt ? He it is who is our aurety ; 
four surety, the surety of the whole world ; who hath 
suffered the due reward of sin ; who will deliver us 
from hell ; who will make us righteous through his 
righteousness ; who will enable us to know the Eter- 
nal Spirit who dwelleth with God, and who will give 
us eternal happiness and infinite bliss. Such is our 
Saviour, and such is he whose-gospel I preach." 

The Hindoos do not seem destitute of some no- 
tions of the doctrine of substitution, though they seem 
to have scarcely any right views of sin and genuine 
repentance. This is as one might expect, when he 
considers what degrading notions they have of God. 
It can be no great evil in their eyes to 


laws 1 which the lawgi\w himself does not regard. 
We need not be surprised to Bee the Hindoos Regard- 
ing aWttin as their Saviour, who w as corrupt as 
themselves. ^The vile gastfvee, for a few pfce, will 
set their tainda at rest oh fhe subject of sin ; and re- 
pentance, of course, can be no more **Hm ^sorrow, 
arising ' frdra a fear of punishment ; «or rather, I 
think; frorti the loss which they may have sustained 
from detection. If a titan gains a pice by falsehood, 
he tejbtees in Ms falsehood; if he is detected and 
loses 'the: pice, he is sorry, and repents. Babajee's 
views of the atonement and the operations of the 
Holy Spirit, appear from the Allowing' extract : 

Atonement and operation of the Holy Spirit. 

tx When all raeil had broken the holy law of God, 
and became sinful and worthy of hell, then the eter- 
nal God devised for our salvation a remedy which is 
in every respect suitable. The remedy is tfris : ' The 
Supreme God, <hat sinners might be saved, took on 
himself a human body, was conceived in a virgin's 
womb, without the union of man, became incarnate 
in the world, and prepared the way of salvation for 
the believing sintoer. * ^The rites and the services, the 
sacrifices, and all the requisitions of the law which we 
are required to perform Unto God, he hath fulfilled 
in our stead. After continuing in the world for 
thirty-three years, and Suffering, as our substitute, 
he finally offered' up his body as a sacrifice to atone 

18f mhvmm of the sraur. 

for sin. We must rely with genuine faith on the 
Lord Jesus Christ, the anointed Saviour, and pray 
to God in his name, confessing sin, and asking the 
Holy Spirit. With a due sense of dependence on 
God, we must implore the Holy Spirit for the reno- 
vation of our hearts. That is, that he would eradi- 
cate our sinful affections, and engraft in our hearts 
holy affections. For it is the Holy Spirit who puri- 
fieth the heart from sinful thoughts, desires, and 
imaginations; as concupiscence, anger, drunken- 
ness, emulation, covetousness, envy, deceit, quarrel- 
ing, licentiousness, and the like. To know whether 
there be in our heart the influence of the Holy 
Spirit, we must try ourselves by such a test as this ; 
namely, have we ' love, joy, peace, long-suffering, 
gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance V 
If we have not attained these graces, the influence of 
the Holy Spirit does not dwell in us. And, more- 
over, if these graces do not, from time to time, in- 
crease in us, it is an indication that we are not influ- 
enced by the Holy Spirit. The minding of the 
things of the Spirit is life." 

In connection with this subject, it should be re- 
marked, that the Hindoos abound in atonements for 
sin, ablutions, pilgrimages, penances, fasting, eating 
cow-dung, drinking her urine, giving to the Brah- 
muns, drinking water in which Brahmuns have dip- 
ped their toes, licking the dust from their feet, &c. 
While the ignorant people are proverbially suspi- 


cious in regard to . innovations on their usages, or 
any infringement of caste, they are the most credu- 
lous creatures imaginable, in the performance of the 
fooleries which are imposed on them by the Brah- 
urans. They will starve themselves, mangle their 
limbs, spend all their living to go on pilgrimage, and 
leave their families at home to suffer, or take them a 
tedious journey of two or three months to suffer still 
more severely, and perhaps die on the road ; and 
never does it seem to enter their minds that this is 
not praiseworthy with man, and acceptable with 
God.* That God only demands a broken heart and 
a contrite spirit, and the subjection of the passions 
to his will, never seems to enter into their notiohs of 

Necessity of the Holy Spirit. 

" Without the aid of the Holy Spirit the heart 
cannot be renewed ; and without renovation of heart 
no one can exercise true repentance, true faith, true 
love, or perform acceptable service in the sight of 
God. Therefore the aid of the Spirit is, above 
all things, necessary. Do you ask how we are to 
obtain the Holy Spirit? To you who reflect, I will 
speak. Hear what I say. The Giver of the Holy 
Spirit is the Eternal God. If you love God, your 
Saviour, with all your mind, and all your soul and 

♦ Sea Chapters Vffl. and XIV. Part II. 


strength, he will "give you (he Holy Spirit, renew 
yoor heart, dwell with yon, and make yen eternally 
happy. Whosoever is born of God doth not sin, for 
his seed remaineth in him. He cannot sin, because 
he it born of God." 


Is tag MrifVin* tb» heart— Mark* of a trae Oooroo.— Ja» 
•traction in Sanucrit fene^— Babajee'e poetry— foorhjaij 

Buidm the treatises en Justification, Regenera- 
tion, <fcc, which I have already inserted, there ap- 
pears among his papers the fragment of a discourse 
on the means of Sanctification, entitled tt Expedients 
for Purifying the Soul." The fragment is the com* 
mencement of a discourse, which, like the others, 
seems to have been prepared for an address to our 
native congregation on the Sabbath. It was probably 
unfinished, or the remainder is lost. 

" Expedients for Purifying the Soul. 

" My brethren, there is no greater inquiry than 
this ; How shall the soul be sanctified? Whoever 
does not rightly consider this, fails of the great end 
of his creation. If you reply, ' we have fully con* 
sidered this matter,' then I demand of you, by what 

fob muffin 1SB W6VL. 

rale, or by what shaatra have you been guided m 
your inquiries? Have you taken the Christian sha* 
Ira for your guide, or other shastras ? If you have 
reasoned according to other shastras, then hear what 
I have to say. 

I purpose first to speak of die Hindoo shastras* 
In these it is written that sin may be pardoned and 
destroyed, and eternal blessedness obtained by pet* 
ance, by repeating the names of gods, the names of 
holy places, passages from the shastras, charms, fcc ; 
by forsaking the abodes of man and dwelling in the 
desert; by ablution, giving to Brahmuns, and fasting ♦ 
and by the worship of images, men and devils. True, 
it is so written ; but all these expedients, tsttAoufptf* 
rUy of heart, can be of no avail in securing future 
Hiss ; and if the mind be once holy, there can be no 
occasion for such expedients. What then ought 
you to do that your hearts may be sanctified? By 
worshiping corruptible gods you dishonor the in* 
corruptible God. This is an infinite am. Those 
whom you call gods" ~ 

[J&rs th* fragment mid*.] 

The following paper, which did not attract my 
attention till a late period in the preparation of this 
Memoir, has interested me too much to allow it to 
pass unnoticed. If I have not perused it with undue 
partiality, the pious Christian, and also the minister 
of the gospel, will, <m reading these excellent re* 


IdS cflABAcrownos 

Marks on the qualifications of a religious teacher,de- 
rive an advantage and pleasure beyond what I had 
hoped and expected in the preparation of this little 
book. He may feel a gratification in knowing thai 
a depraved son of India, and a corrupt priest of Bra- 
ma, may, by the power and grace of God, become his 
teacher in the momentous concerns of the soul's sal- 
vation. These are the effusions of a heart, but eigh- 
teen months before benighted in idolatry, and led 
captive by Satan at his will. I am not quite sure 
that I have in every instance exhibited the exact 
meaning of the original. The style, idiom, and much 
of the language, is Sanskrit, written in a measured 
style of poetry like, the Hindoo sacred books. I am 
conscious in the translation of all Babajee's papers, of 
falling far short of the original in vividness and 
strength of expression. It is but a translation, 
which must always mean something in some de- 
gree different from, and generally inferior to, the 
original. I am sensible of unusual deficiency in the 
following paper, especially in the description given 
of false teachers. The comparison, for example, of 
the Hindoo goozoo, or a deceitful teacher with a liz- 
zard, falls far short of the same in Mahratha. One 
must see the great red-headed lizard of India, mo* 
ting from place to place, and stopping every moment] 
and stretching his long neck, first one way, then the 
other, as if intent on spying out the most minute 
thing, and he will then know how apt the compari- 


son is. The character here given of false teachers, 
or goorooe, is doubtless true to life,. when applied to 
thousands of religious mendicants who deluge the 
country. Formerly they went in companies of hun- 
dreds, and sometimes of thousands, and devastated the 
country like a cloud of locusts. When they came 
to a village they demanded whatever they chose, and 
resorted to violence if it were not given. The prac- 
tice here alluded to of saying muntros in the ear, is 
very common, and is regarded as very efficacious. 

"Marks of a true Teacher. — (Gooboo.) 

" A gooroo should be learned in the Scriptures, a 
wise and skillful teacher, and versed in all sorts of 
learning. Casting off the pride of human wisdom, he 
should delight in the commands of God. He should 
turn his back on the wealth, or the wife of his neigh- 
bor, and should never speak of the faults or the de- 
fects of others. He is sacredly bound to be discreet, 
merciful, and benevolent As the sun enlightens, 
and blesses all around, so ought his beneficence and 
wsdom to impart instruction and happiness. Hav- 
ing secured his own salvation, he should seek the 
salvation of all about him. He should make hi? 
disciples holy. In honor and dishonor he should be 
the same. Should a disciple, whom he has taught 
with much care, forsake him and go to another 
teacher, he should not indulge his mind in angry 

or unbecoming feeling. Should the people revile 


188 * cBAMAcnuamca 

and stone him, he ought to cast before him the .shield 
of forgiveness, and not allow hatred or revenge to 
arise. His love to his disciples should be like love 
to a brother. A gooroo should never take a crooked 
step, or throw a stumbling-block in the way of his 
disciples. Knowing this, that the visible universe 
is transitory, but the spiritual world is eternal, he 
should keep himself from all hurtful passions, and 
fix his mind on heavenly things. If fortune smiles, 
or if in a moment all is dashed to the ground, his 
mind is neither elated with joy, nor depressed with 
sorrow. The ant and the universe, the mighty and 
the mean, the king and the beggar, are alike. The 
image of the sun appears the same, whether its rays 
fall into a large or a small vessel of water. He is a 
true gooroo, who, in all his conversation and inter- 
course with the world, never forgets his station and 
character, nor loves disputes or useless controversy. 
The great and the rich of the earth do him honor ; 
but he regards not their praise, and seeks not to be 
called great. To flatter the great and despise the 
low, he knows not. Whether a man be rich or poor 
he regards it not. He is at peace with himself, de- 
lights in the worship of God, and loves the society 
of the righteous. Adorned with these marks he be- 
comes a mighty and a complete gooroo. Whoever 
does not bear about him these marks, has no claim 
to the qualities of a gooroo. Such a one is false at 
heart : keep not his company. There is no wisdom 


in him. As the lizard runs from - place to place, 
stretching out his neck to spy out every object about 
him. so the hypocritical goftroo saunters from village 
to village, to make a show of his sanctity, and to an- 
swer his own carnal purposes.* They reproach all 
good men, and teach for the word of God the pre- 
cepts of man. Th£y decoy the simple from the 
right way, and, pretending they know every thing, 
teach the people that first of all they should worship 
them. Whomsoever they happen to meet, they ac- 
cost as their disciple, and strive to draw him after 
them. Like the gabbling of a drunkard, they prate 
out unmeaning muntras (charms or incantations) into 

* The impositions practised by those religious mendicants, and by 
others assuming their garb and habits, are wonderful ; and only show 
more strikingly the wretchedness of a superstitious nation. .Under 
the semblance of great sanctity and self-denial, or in the practice of 
severe penance, these vagrants wander about from village to village, 
and make all things, as far as possible, subservient to themselves. 
This they often do in no small degree ; for the deluded people believa 
there is great merit in feeding them. Hence they supply their wants 
while they remain, and give them money to carry away. These de- 
votees go on long pilgrimages, begging their way for thousands of 
miles, and are, perhaps, at the same time engaged in some profitable 
traffic in precious metals or Cashmere shawls. The latter they pro- 
cure very cheap, at Cashmere, and the former in Northern India, and 
manage to carry them among their rags so as to be unsuspected. 
They sell these at an enormous profit. These arch hypocrites have 
been found dead by the road, or at some place far from home, and, 
on examination, their tattered, dirty ungurka has been 'found to be 
quilted full of gold mohurs, a coin of the value of fifteen rupees, or 
more than se'ven dollars. The finest portion of the city of Poona, 
which is called Goosawqepoor, was built by these beggars. They 
are generally called Gosawees. A Brahmun whom I nave this, mo- 
ment consulted on the subject, says the circumstance of a Gosa- 
wee's being rich or poor, has no influence on the people in respect to 
'giving them in chanty; they regard only their M moral greatness."* 

Natives have formerly, and no doubt do at the present day, as- 
sume the garb and habits of the Gosawee, for a still worse purpose 
than to extort charity. The thie^ the highway robber, the assassin. 

140 U tST E T JC HOWl 

the ear, but ensnare their disciples by their fair words, 
and threaten them with curses if they do not wor- 
ship them. They say <-we are wise, and freed from 
all earthly pollution, and regulate all our actions by 
the shastras.' They sometimes appear meek ; again 
they are full of lust and anger. Tbey.say c we are 
in the way of salvation,' but they know not God, 
They put on a false semblance of virtue, while the 
deadly disease within is unhealed." 

Babajee during the last months of his life had 
been in the habit of writing abhungu, and other 
poetical pieces, in which he imitated the style of 
composition, and the manner of delivering instruc- 
tion which is practised among the Brahmuns. The 
abhungu is a metrical composition, in praise of the 
Deity, and adopted to the sing-song tone in which 
die natives recite the shastras, or rehearse traditions, 
legends, and the like. 

As this practice is so common, and so well 

the spy and traitor, mil in their tarn, have been known to b e smear 
their hair and bodies with ashes, daub their faces with ochre, doff 
their ordinary apparel, and pat on the copperas-colored cloth of the 
Gosawee. They sally forth with the stair in hand, a bell, a string of 
beads, a necklace of shells, a cocoa-nut or gourd-shell to receive alms, 
and their besmeared hair flying in the wind. Thus decorated the 
pretended Gosawee goes forth, sometimes braying like an ass, some- 
times bowling like a jackall, and enters houses, spying out its riches, 
and its defence, and reports to the head of the banditti to which he 
belongs. And, in like manner they accomplish any dark deed of rob- 
bery or murder which they wish. Captain Mackintosh mentions in 
his history of the lawless marauders, of, the Deckan, called Ramoo- 
eees, that this is their most common resource for ascertaining the 
amount of property in any given place, or the means by which h 
could be obtained. An arch fellow, in toe garb of a gosawee, would 
bring Comajee, their chief; an account of any treasure which was 
to be moved, and an estimate of its value, See Chap. XV. Part U. 

IK UMEftlT VftBSB. 141 

• ■ 

adapted to convey instruction to the native, in a 
manner which will interest him, it is, undoubtedly, 
an important desideratum to be able to turn this to 
good account. It is not, however, likely to be done 
with effect, except by a learned native. The foreign* 
er*s imitation of it would be so remote and barba* 
rous, that the people would scarcely recognise it, 
As Christianity advances in India, this kind of com- 
position will not unlikely be adopted as a channel 
for communicating religious truth ; and it will at 
the same time furnish, perhaps, the only proper sub- 
stitute for the bawdy songs, stories, and legends, 
which soLimteh abound among the natives. They 
have so long cherished the propensity to recite and 
listen to these — the habit is so common and invete- 
rate—that converts to Christianity, unless they are 
famished with a substitute, will almost inevitably 
be corrupted by them. Babajee had not overlooked 
this principle in human nature. Whether the more 
effectual edification of his people was the motive 
which moved him, in the first instance, to adopt this 
mode of composition ; or whether it originated from 
feeling a vacuity in his own mind, arising from the 
force of habit, is uncertain. He recited these hymns 
(as I may as well call them) to his more intimate 
friends, and to small circles of the people ; used 
them at family devotion in his own house; and, 
when unoccupied, he was almost continually sing- 
ing them. I shall here add a few specimens, with- 

142 ww) » mm t 

oat any attempt to exhibit die measure, or the style 
of tha original, bat only to couvey the thoughts of 
the writer. Oar English translation of the Psalms 
of the "sweet singer of Israel," give us scarcely any 
idea of the beauty of the original Hebrew poetry. 
So, comparing small things with great, the follow- 
ing translation conveys but a slight notion of the 

rntrr btmn. 

Jesus m the King of aunts; Jesus is the support of the soul; 

Jesus is my God. In heaven or in earth there is no other 

He is the ornament and delight of hia saints ; a terror to the 

wicked ; pardon to the penitent ; and hie tender mercies 

are oyer all. 
Jam is an ocean of happiness ; a aea of love ; a fan mountain 

which cannot be moved. 
Ha iathe guide and protector of hia people; an inexhaustible 

fountain in the house of hia saints. 



In vain waa my life; my days went to naught when I did not 
worship thee, O I my Saviour. 

n» juTiovm. lit 

I squandered my substance in sin ; Tain and Tile wen all my 

offerings to strange gods. 
In Tain liave I called this or that ay own; I have thro* nr/ 

neck in a snare, and there was none to deliver. 
When I turned my back on the righteous, I incensed a Holy 

God, and deprived myself of the gracious fruits of his 


Who, and what 1 was, and whither tending, I knew not ; all 

my penances and oblations were Tain, 
helpless, worthless, and undone, my soul shall cleave to my 

Redeemer. This mortal, wonderful body, will soon perish. 
Who csa understand the subtlety of Death! He smites, he. 

casts into the grave, and gluts his vengeance, 
I*! this vain world I leave; though lost, I am found ; I am 

saved in Christ, the sinner's friend. 


Surely Christ is our father, our Mother, our Brother. 

Fountain of mercy, blessed Jesus, speedily fhon reforest the 
weary and afflicted. 

Thou hast saved me through Grace; what shall I render thee! 
I have nothing to offer. 

Lover of the humble 1 Thou hast freely saved me ! Grant 
me what is fit; do with me as thou wilt. 

Envy, anger, and lust, like flames, consume us ; disease, sor- 
row, and death are the portion of our cup. 

Therefore will I continually call on thee, thou fountain of Mer- 
cy, blessed Jesus. 


Manifest thyself to my soul ; for I will seek thee with my 
whole heart. 

receive me, O ! thou ftiend of saint* ! deliver me m 
thy great mercy ! 



Christ is the Father of the fatherless, the mighty God, the 

Lord of all. 
Like a kind father, he inclines his ear and hears when his sup- 
pliant children cry. 
He knows their thoughts ; He sees their wants ; His hand is 

near. In life, in death, adore the Saviour God. 
He who looks to Him with undivided heart, shall find honor, 

peace, and happiness. 
Let all the people worship and adore Him ! how vain, how vile 

to worship other gods, the creatures of His hand ! 
Behold the man consumed by a hundred desires ! Can gold, 

or pride, or lust procure him peace and pardon 1 But I 

will cling to Jesus. 
Tell 'me, O ! ye people, how a man pan be clean in the sight 

of God ! I have searched your shastras ; I have tried 

your gods ; but, alas ! in vain 1 Come ye to Jesus ; He 

k the fountain. 


■** LA«r bats . HB 


^ho latter period of hie life— labor* more leelonsljr— grows in grace. 
—The value of native assistants.— Organization of the Church.— 
Babaiee elected eider. — Moral sodetv— its rales. — His sickness) 
and death.— Reflection*.— A yoke to Christiana— to young men.— 
A prayer. 

But I must draw to a close — the days of our be- 
loved disciple were numbered. Too soon for us — 
too soon for his poor countrymen, be wis called 
away to a higher and a holier work, nearer to his 
redeeming God. The sun t which rose so clearly, 
and shone so brightly, was soon to set. It set with- 
out a cloud. But for our fond hopes that the Master 
of the vineyard would spare a laborer, who, in our 
estimation, Was so important to the furtherance of 
the gospel among the heathen, we should have in- 
dulged a presentiment that he was preparing for a 
speedy exit, from a state of labor and suffering, to a 
-state of rest and glory. During three or four months 
previous to his death, he had been more than usu- 
ally zealous for the conversion of his people, more 
exclusively devoted to his labors, and more elevated 
and uniform* in his religious affections. His views 
of Christianity seemed daily to become enlarged, 
and his benevolence more extensive. He now beau- 
tifully exemplified the diffusive character of our 



blessed religion. His love became more ardent, his 
faith drew nearer and nearer to reality, and his hope 
to fruition. During this period, he indulged the 
most sanguine hopes that the conversion of India was 

But we must review this period a>ore particular- 
ly. Hi* labors with the. peppie of the poor asylum, 
were almost ineessant. He read to them the Scrip- 
tures, explained them, repeated verse by verse to 
those who were blind, that they might treasure up in 
their hearts, portions of the word of God — taught 
them from room to room, and prayed with them in 
private. His more pyblic instructions beeame move 
impassioned and pointed ; jus private controversies, 
with the people of his own caste, were more earnest 
and solemn ; and, in all things, he labored Kke a 
man who had much to do in a short time. We had, 
at this period, several persons who had asked bap- 
tism, and were regarded by us, as inquirers after the 
truth. Though a little too credulous in fair profes- 
sions, he generally showed a discrimination and 
judgment in testing the character of such, and in 
imparting suitable instructions, which would do 
honor to many religious teachers, of far more expe- 
rience in the Christian cause. ' Three of these can- 
didates were baptized, and received into lomnrankm 
with the church in Nov. 1832, and four others, in 
the February following. On both of these occa- 
sions, Babajee seemed to partake of the feeling of 

LAVt LABOttl* 147 

good old Simeon, whoa he said, "Mine eyes have 
seen thy salvation, Lord, now lettest thou thy ser- 
vant depart in peace.' 9 

Although four of these were Mhars, (whose 
shadow, if it so much as pass over a Brahmun, pol- 
lutes him,) and two others were diseased with lepro- 
sy,* Bbbajee gave them the most cordial reception, 
and did not manifest the least scruple to the receiv- 
ing of them to the full and immediate participation 
of the Lord's Supper. This involved a more com- 
plete renunciation of caste than he had previously 
been called on to make.t 

During the month of December, 1832, Babajee 
asd myself made two preaching tours to the south- 
ward from Ahmednugguf , where we visited about 
twenty villages. And in February, we made our 
last tour together, on which we visited twenty-two 
villages to the east and north of Ahmednuggur. On 

• The reader may not be aware that lepers, as soon as they ap- 
pear to be past cure, become outcasts. Thev are disinherited ana east 
out by their relatives, and almost unavoidably become great sufferers 
for the want of the most common comforts of life* to say nothing of 
the bodily pains which they suffer on account of the disease. Nor 
are lepers the only persons who are cruelly treated on account of in- 
firmity or disease; " The following persons are excluded from in- 
heritance, unless the defect can be removed by medicaments or pen- 
ance : any one who is blind, deaf; dumb, unable to walk, leprous, 
impotent, insane, idiotic, &c. — Steele's Law and Custom of Caste. 

tit may 'not be known to the friends of missions hi general, that 
the usages of caste, in some parts of India, have been respected among 
native converts to a most ruinous extent. Missionaries once in- 
dulged their converts in this respect to the great grief of those who 
now labor in those fields. Caste has been allowed to appear at the 
communion table. See an account of this lamentable practice in the 
latter part of Chap. XI. Part. II. 


these tours Babajee's labors were most zealous and 
indefatigable. His instructions now appeared more 
tender, and at the same time more pointed and 
searching; his prayers more fervent; his hopes 
more elevated and sanguine, but completely baqpd 
on the Divine promises ; and his anxieties more in- 
tense for the salvation of his countrymen. He always 
bore an important share of the labor of addressing 
the people in public ; but I here speak more particu- 
larly of his more private labors ; of his private con- 
versations with little groups of natives, which he 
always managed to gather about him. He explain- 
ed to them the nature of the Christian religion, re- 
moved their objections, and pointed out to them the 
absurdities, and the errors of their own system. The 
whole lifetime of a foreigner would be insufficient 
to qualify him to perform this part of missionary 
labor, so ably as a pious, intelligent Brahmun can 
do ; so well, I may say, as Babajee did. This does 
not merely suppose a competent acquaintance with 
their language, but it supposes a knowledge of every 
thing which makes a Hindoo differ in habits of 
thinking, in modes of reasoning, in prejudices, super- 
stitions, maxims, or customs, from a foreigner. 
Foreigners, missionaries from Christian lands, we 
must have, in order to prepare the instruments who 
are to accomplish the great work, which remains to 
be done in India ; but the instruments themselves 
must be natives ofthe country. 

the lamoir emcH, 149 

The last occasion in which I was united with 
Babajee, for the furtherance of the gospel, was the 
organization of our mission church on the 4th March, 
1833. I was then called away to MahabuHshwur 
Hills. The organizing of the church was a solemn 
and interesting occasion. Babajee had been pro* 
posed, and unanimously chosen an elder of the 
church, and was this day ordained to the office. 
His whole department on this occasion appeared 
the index of a sincere heart, and bespoke a becom- 
ing sense of responsibility. His humility, his gen* 
tleness, his solemnity, andHhe tears of joy and pen* 
itence which rolled down his cheeks as he knelt 
before u^ furnished the most pleasing evidence that 
Divine grace can humble the proud Brahmun, and 
warm his cold heart ; that it can infuse sensibility 
into his unfeeling breast, and implant the matchless 
graces of love, friendship, and benevolence, in a soil 
where ones flourished nothing but the rank weeds of 
avarice, hatred, selfishness, and pri&e. 

At the close of this interesting transaction we 
proceeded to form ourselves in a society, for the 
regulation of our moral conduct. An account of 
this proceeding may be seen in the sixth Chapter, 
of the second Part, of this volume. 

The rtdes df this Society, which were unani- 
mously adopted by the Church, were the production 
of Babajee's pen ; and it may therefore be gratifying 
to the reader to be famished with a. transcript of the 


1M mootjltioih 

document. It is entirely Babajeefe. He drew up the 
articles, according to what, in his judgment, the cir- 
cumstances of the converts required ; and I saw no 
good reason for alteration or suggestion* The read- 
er may do more than gratify hjs curiosity ; he may 
learn from it what are the vices and the temptations 
into which native converts are liable to fall ; and 
consequently, what cautions they need, and what 
vigilance and care they require, of those who watch 
over them ; and what wisdom and prudence, and pa- 
tience, missionaries need in order to guide these new- 
born babes through all the dangers of their way. 
The practices, customs, and vices which are alluded 
to in the following articles, are so common, and the 
temptation, under which native converts are, on 
account of their education and habits, of being se- 
duced by them, is so strong, that nothing but the 
restraining grace of God can keep them from falling 
into sins, which, in a Christian land, are denounced 
by the common sentiments of decency. 

The Articles are headed by an " acknowledg- 
ment of the Christian Scriptures, as the grand rule 
of action." 

1. "We will not ourselves use, or give to others, ardent 
■pints, ezeept as a medicine. ; ., wr ; , r f \ 

3. "We will not ourselves engage in, or. goto witness 
heathen sports, shows, jugglers' feats, etc. 

3. " We will not indulge in buffoonery, jeering, and deri- 
sion of others, 

4. "We will not observe heathen 

07 ▲ MORAL 0OCI9TT* 151 

5. M We will not regard lucky and unlucky days. 

6. "We wttl not sing, or hear lascivious songs. 

7. u Wo will not sit and tell, or hear, frivolous and obscene 

8. M We win not use abusive or obscene language. 

9. M We win observe no Hindoo custom which is opposed 
to the Christian Scriptures. 

10. « We win not, through indolence, sit idle, but will be 
engaged In some useful employment. 

11. " We win not do or say any thing against the Church 
of Christ. 

12. M Without good reason we win not wander about from 
place to place, nor engage in pastimes. 

13. ** We wiU not, through slothfolness, remain at home on* 
the Sabbath, and neglect to hear the word of God. 

14. " If engaged in the capacity of servants, we will not 
practise those customs of servants which are contrary to the 
New Testament. 

15. u We will, in a becoming manner, administer to the 

16. ** We wnl wash, clothe, and bury the dead. 

17. u We wfll not use harsh or unkind language. 

18. "Drugs which turn the head, as opium, bang,* etc. we 
win not use. 

19. " We will not swear by God, or Jesus Christ 

20. " We win not give others bad instruction, or advice. 

21. "For the recovery of our diseases we wttl not use the 
nrantru, or the tuntra.f 

22. " We win not practise according to heathen usages, 
in regard to births, marriages, and funerals. 

• Bang— an intoxicating drag, extracted from hemp. 

t Incantations and mystic ceremonies, much practised by Brah- 

lM Hit JUL AMD MTJffiffr 

38. M WewifiMtgiiri>]*wpk?aiygaiMef6lalic^ 
24. "We will* era *»>»•*.» 

From this time to his death, Babajee, with the 
assistance of Dajaba, carried on the qperaturas of the 
rnimrion, under the direction of Mr* Boggs, who had 
recently arrived in the country* ftnd oettW bot, of 
course/afTord any direct assistance in the Mahfatha 
services. He conducted our morning and evening 
service, superintended two schools, and was the 
overseer ef the poor asylum* In addition. to the in- 
creased labors and com which my absence threw 
on him, he tindeftook to instruct Mr. B. in the Mah- 
ratha language. He was perfectly voluntary in 
these services. The labors of the mission would 
have been curtailed had he not desired that they 
should remain as they were. His sand, no doubt, 
hurried him on beyond the limits of his strength 5 
and it is not improbable that his increased labors pre- 
disposed him to an attack of the cholera. He was 
naturally of a feeble constitution, and had been but 
little accustomed to hard study and severe exertion. 
In several imrtairees, and once in particular, during 
our !a& preaching tour, ha had been «etetd *kh a 
severe complaint in his bowels. Thfe Was, dbtitfr 
less, occasioned by exposure to the heat, and over 

The warm weather had already commenced, and 
die seaton wad unusually hot He pursued his 
labors with the same diligence as he had done. His 

babusb's death. 159 

xeal remained unabated. The spirit was indeed 
willing; bat alas! how soon we were convinced, 
the flesh was weak. Never were our expectations 
more raised, never did we regard his labors so es- 
sential to the successful prosecution of our work. 
But the great Head of the church had otherwise de- 
termined. We were to be rebuked for fixing our 
hopes on man for success. Babajee was not neces- 
sary to the accomplishment of God's purposes in 
India, and he removed him to a higher and a hap- 
pier sphere of action. While in the midst of his 
work, and when we regarded him as peculiarly 
qualified for increased usefulness, he was seized with 
the cholera. He survived the first attack, and at- 
tempted to return to his work ; but the scourge re- 
appeared after a few days, and executed its dread , 
commission, and left our afflicted mission again to 

His end, as far as we know, was peace. No 
member of the mission who could speak his language, 
or understand what he said, was with him during 
his illness, or at the time of his death. Some days be- 
fore his death he lost the use of his speech, and soon 
after was bereft of reason. It does not appear that 
any apprehensions were entertained, either by him- 
self, or others, that his end was so near, till he be- 
came unable to converse. His wife, and others who 
were with him, say, that, up to the time of his deli- 
rium' he uniformly expressed an entire confidence in 


his Redeemer, and an unshaken hope of salvation 
bj his blood. He died on the 17th April, 1833, aged 
forty-two ; lamented by the missioa, deeply lament- 
ed by his bereaved widow, lamented by the church* 
by the people of the poor-house, and respected, as far 
as a person in his circumstances could be, by alL 
He was highly esteemed by the lower orders of the 
people; and the Brah&uns, while they no doubt 
Most cordially hated him for having abandoned the 
religion of his fathers, and not only become a pro- 
selyte to another religion, but a teacher of it, eould 
not but respect him as a clever man, and an honesty 
upright, and sincere outcast They had, no doabt* 
many a time, predicted bis death as a judgment 
which the angry gods would inflict on him for his 
impiety, in forsaking the religion of their ancient or- 
der ; and they nowynot unlikely, sought to turn the 
present occasion to their own account, and to rivet 
the fetters on their willing slaves. The event had 
verified the prediction, and they could now challenge 
the confidence of the people, and at the same time to 
hold out to all apostates from Brahmunism, an ex- 
ample of terror. But why do the heathen rage, and 
the people imagine a vain thing ? He that sitteth in 
the heavens shall laugh : the Lord shall have, diem 
in dor is ton. He will speak to them in his wrath,> 
and vex them in his sore dispfeasnire. While the 
holy hill of Zton shall arise and the glory of her 
shall fill the whote earth. Come, Lord Jesus, 

eeiqeqiiickly. Dispel the dark deads which now 
hater over the heathen nations, take thine " inhertt- 
WMMf ami possets <* the uttermost parte of the 

But stop, pious reader, and, as" you drop a tear 
over the little spot of earth where repose the bones 
<rf Babajee^ reflect fer whom y6u mourn. Yen 
«Kuun not fer a he*o who defied die thunder? of 
war— wbo was 'great only in the destruction of his 
-species, and who shall lire oatyin the history of 
battles and martial triumphs. Yon n*oum net for 
a statesman, whose marbled monument teBs you how 
gpeat he was — how little he is. Yon mourn not fer 
a poet, a sage, or an orator. You mourn for a Hin- 
doo Brahman— fer a despised disciple of Jesus 
Christ, in a dark corner of the earth, whom the 
world knew not, and of whom the world wfcs not 
worthy. You mourn fer a hero who dared deflp 
more than the warlike hosts of earths- who dared 
contend, at the sacrifice <rf every earthly tie, with a 
contemptuous priesthood and a superstitious people— 
who dared confront a sneering world. And why 
Should you lament fer him ? He is one, among the 
millions who have, within the brief period of your 
remembrance, gone from that benighted land into 
the world of spirits. He exchanged a state of perse- 
oution and of suffering, for a state of joy and ever- 
lasting blessedness. They have gone from a land of 
-wretchedness and abominations, to meet the final 


doom of the idolater. We lament not his happy ex- 
change. We mourn that he is so soon snatched 
away from the harvest which we had hoped he was 
to gather in. Bat we bow, for so, Father, it seemed 
good in thy sight* 

But a voice comes from Babajee's grave, which 
we would do well to hear. I have alluded to the 
importance, to the seemingly indispensable neces- 
sity of native laborers, in order to carry: on any ex- 
tensive operations in India. I have dwelt sufficient- 
ly on the important services which Babajee render- 
ed to the mission, during his short Christian career. 
But there is another aspect in which we ought here 
to view this subject. I mean the mysterious na" 
tore of the dispensation. Babajee was an extraor- 
dinary instance of piety and zeal. He was brought 
into the kingdom of his Redeemer at a late period 
of his life. His whole soul seemed intent on a sin- 
gle object — professedly the grand object of every 
disciple of Christ Zeal for the house of God con- 
sumed him. He was a light to the Gentiles. He 
emerged from the dark abyss of idolatry. He shone 
brightly for a little space. Many saw the light, and 
a few were guided by its refulgence to the Sun of 
Righteousness. This light was extinguished. It 
sunk not again into the abyss, but ascended, burn- 
ing brighter and brighter, till it was lost in the inex- 
tinguishable splendor of .the " perfect day." 

Eight short months measured his Christian ex- 

ho* wtttittr* x cjtf&k. 1W 

istence. Brit why was his course so short i Ood 
so determined, and we respond, Father, thy will be 
done. But why — I ask with deference — why, does 
Odd deal with us in this manner ? Why did he 
single oot Babajee from the myriads of that cor- 
rupt priesthood, and convert hint, and fill his heart 
with benevolence, and zeal, and piety, and permit 
him to commence a useful career, and so highly 
raise our hopes ; and, theft, almost at the outset, dash 
those hopes to the ground ? Why does he open such 
an unbounded field for missionary operations in In- 
dia, and permit his people to send laborers to that 
harvest, and then leave them to contend with such 
difficulties in reference to the heathen themselves, to 
struggle with so much ill health, to be removed, and 
so often to sicken and die ? Why does he give us so 
little apparent success, so few converts; why so 
much defection among these converts ? Why does 
he seem to withhold from .that field the extensive 
influences of his blessed Spirit ? We may resolve all 
these questions in his sovereign will. We may say 
" it is to try the faith of his people," to test our fidel- 
ity and perseverance in his service. But there may 
be reasons with which we, as instruments, are more 
personally and more awfully concerned. God may 
be displeased. The cloud which hangs over that 
country, may be the cloud of his indignation. The 
subject demands a most solemn investigation. There 
may be awful guilt somewhere. 



To ascertain where this guilt lies, we must first 
ascertain where lies the responsibility. The com- 
mand has gone out that the work must be done. 
Every disciple of Jesus Christ has recognised, in 
the general terms of his covenant vows, that this 
command is enjoined on him ; and that he will bear 
the burden of the work to the extent of his ability. 
Here then is responsibility. It lies, as a whole, on 
the entire body of Christ's disciples. It lies, indivi- 
dually, on each, and on every member of Christ's 
church. If this responsibility be not sustained ; if 
every professed follower of Jesus Christ do not put 
forth his efforts according to " that which be hath ;" 
if he do not obey a most unequivocal command, and 
do not fulfil the vow, which he knowingly and vol- 
untarily made, what reason has he to expect that 
God will smile on his enterprise ? While God works, 
as he has said he will work, by human instrumen- 
tality, how can he expect that missions will prosper, 
that missionaries will be preserved, and that God 
will extensively pour out his Spirit, and remove all 
those mountains-like obstacles which the perversity 
of the heathen's heart has set up against the con- 
version of that quarter of the globe ? 

My Christian friends, you must measure your 
expectations of the success of missions among the 
heathen by your own zeal and devotedness to the 
cause. Your own heart \s the index. The amount 
of piety there, the amount of genuine love to God in 


your church, of devotedness to Christ throughout 
the churches of the land, of self-devotion in her 
ministers, of interest in the monthly prayer meeting 
for the general diffusion of the Holy Spirit, will tell 
you how much reason you have to hope that the 
Hindoos, or any large portions of the heathen world, 
will soon be converted. Weigh yourselves in this 
balance, and if you be found wanting, cease to mur- 
mur; cease to reproach the almoners of your bounty 
to the heathen, humble yourselves in the dust, 
quicken your diligence, cry for help and begin anew. 

But I do not mean to exonerate your mission- 
aries. They bear with you an individual responsi- 
bility. They are your covenanted servants; and 
bound by this compact to be faithful to the confidence 
which you have reposed in them. They may not 
have sustained their responsibility ; and they may 
not have acquitted themselves well as your repre- 
sentatives. They may be chargeable with a share 
of the guilt. They are but men. Charge them 
with a want of fidelity in the dispensing of the pre- 
cious treasure which you have committed to them, 
if they deserve it. Send out better men if you can ; 
but know that you cannot throw off the responsi- 
bility of this great work. 

But comes there no voice from that consecrated 
spot, to the " schools of the prophets ?" Yes ; I hear 
it. I have already told you, that an increased burden 
of labor devolved on Babajee a few weeks before his 


death. Tbe only efficient missionary bad been 
compelled to leave the station on account of Ui 
health; and the onjy remaining one was at that 
time unable to labor among a people of a strange 
tongue. Why did your predecessors suffer our num- 
ber to become so reduced, that the temporary ab- 
sence or failure of a single man must suspend 901 
labors, or throw an insupportable burden on a pwr 
native convert ? They knew our want* Appeals 
lor more laborers at that station had been made! b^t 
a few months previous to this very juncture. And 
these appeals are now lying in your archives, then 
little heeded, now forgotten. They sent us but a. 
single ipan. He arrived, but late. He came to a 
people of a hard speech, and could then only look 
on, lament, in vain desire to labor, and return to his 
books. Some of these very men, who then heard 
the cry for help, and who ought to have gone to 
India, may still be seeking some goodly place in 
America. They may not be chaxgeable with the 
calamity which befell us in consequence of their ne- 
glect ; but they may, perhaps, be chargeable with a 
dereliction in duty. 

Do you reply, that if you had been candidates 
for the sacred office at that time, you would have 
helped us ? The case j§ not altered. Similar diffi- 
culties are encountered, similar losses are sustained 
at the. present day, and the same reasons exist 
why you should go to the help of your brethren in 


India. You have now before you, at least one dis- 
astrous result of that tardy, hesitating spirit, which 
has so long spell-bound the young men of our Theo- 
logical Seminaries, when they have been called on 
to make a decision as to their personal duty of en- 
gaging in the work of foreign missions. The above 
is probably not a solitary instance of a disastrous 
result from the same cause. Pity then to your 
brethren, who are laboring, fainting, struggling, fall- 
ing, without comrades enough to carry them to their 
untimely graves, pleads with you to come and help 
them. Humanity pleads. The perishing condition 
of the heathen pleads. Obligation to your Saviour 
pleads ; God commands. 

But we will linger no longer about the tomb of 
our departed brother. Dust has returned to dust — 
ashes to ashes. His spirit has returned to God who 
gave it. His labors on earth are done ; his account 
is closed ; he is singing the song of Moses and of the 
Lamb. His body reposes under the wide spread- 
ing branches of a tamarind tree. May the good seed 
which he has sown, be watered by the dews of Di- 
vine Grace, and vegetate, and spring up, and become 
a great tree ; and, like the beautiful and ever-green 
tamarind, may it take deep root, extend its branch- 
es, blossom, and bear much fruit. May its leaves be 
for the healing of that nation ; its fruit delight the 
souls of many, and under its shadow may the wea- 
ry pilgrims rest ! 




u Thou self-existent God ! who art worthy to 
bp adored by the whole Universe I I am a great 
signer. I was bom in sin. My heart is naturally 
full of lust, envy, pride, avarice, hypocrisy, and de- 
ceit. My youth was spent in vanity, and my riper 
years, in dissipation and lewdness. Old age ap- 
proaches ; death is in his train. Without thy mer- 
cy, O God 1 I must suffer everlasting punishment 
in bell. * 

« O Thou Purifier and Restorer of the Men ! I 
am iallen. I am deserving of the eternal torments 
of hell. I am like a broken vessel, only fit to be 
cast out as useless. I ask, Merciful God ! the par- 
don of my sins. I do not ask this on account of any 
good works which I have done ; nor on account of 
any righteousness of my own. I am fallen: Thou 
art the Restorer. For to restore such as I am, Thou 
dytet assume a human body. In the person of the 
Son, Thou didst become incarnate, and didst yield 
up thy lift on the cross, to atone for sin. By his 
perfect obedience to the law, in onr stead, he did 
work out, for us, an everlasting righteousness. I 
come to thee, in the name of Jesus Christ, my Sa- 

* This prayer was written out, by Babaiee, a few weeks before, 
his death, and will here t ery appropriately close his memoir. It 
may be taken as a fair specimen of his confessions and supplications 
at a Throne of Grace* as far as related to his own spiritual wants. 
His supplications for others, and for the cause of Christ ia 
are equally ardent and simple. 


viour, and implore of thee, the pardon of all my sins. 
Hare mercy on me. Infuse into my heart thy Ho* 
ly Spirit, and cleanse me from sin. Eradicate every 
sinful propensity, and ingraft in my heart the love- 
ly graces of humility, gentleness, compassion, joy, 
peace, heavenly wisdom, and a holy disposition. 
Deliver me from sinful thoughts, and imaginations; 
from anger, hypocrisy, pride, covetousness, and world- 
ly infatuation ; and enable me to keep thy command- 
ments, and to worship thee m sincerity. Lead me 
in the right way ; teach me thy word ; and enable 
me to preach the Gospel of thy Son, with boldness. 
I can do nothing without thy assistance. I can 
neither worship thee, nor pray to thee, nor praise, 
thank, nor glorify thee aright. Therefore, O thou 
Father of the fatherless, help me, save me— cast me 
hot off, for to whom else shall I go ? 

" Adorable God ! may this body of sin be cruci- 
fied with the body of Christ. May he dwell in me, 
and I in him. Soon my soul must leave this earth- 
ly tabernacle \ May it then, through Jesus Christ, 
go to thee ; there to worship thee for ever. In thy 
service, will be all my joy and happiness. All this, 
I ask, in the name of Jesus Christ May I praise 
and glorify thee for ever and ever : Amen." 









Little known of India in America.— Indian History divided into three 
periods— Little known of taw first period.— Nature of their His- 
torical records.— How the Hindoos divide time.— Conquest by the 
Mahomedans— -by different nations of Europe— by the English. 

Since completing the preceding Memoir, I have 
feared my labor would, in part, be lost, if the read* 
er be not more fully introduced to the country and 
kindred of the subject of the Memoir. The inter- 
course between India and America is so limited, and 
pf such a natttre, as almost to preclude the people 
of .the latter from, possessing any very minute know- 
ledge of the former. They have but a vague know- 
ledge of the country ; and, in general, a still more 
vague and incorrect knowledge of the people. Mis- 
sionary reports, journals, and letters, have done 
what, in this way, could be done. But the hetero- 
geneous naftia of information which has thus been 
communflEd, lies scattered through the numerous 
volumes, and the innumerable pamphlets and news- 


papers, which the religious press has furnished for 
the last twenty years ; and the American public are 
scarcely the wiser for the varied stores of information 
which have so often been exported from this inter- 
esting country. It is not possible for me, wholly, to 
supply the deficiency. I have neither the leisure nor 
the means of supplying, in one connected form, so 
much valuable information as has heretofore been 
communicated, in detached portions, by my prede- 
cessors, and overlooked or forgotten by the good peo- 
ple in America. 

What I bete principally propose, for the better uri- 
defstanffisgof the preceding Memoir, is, to give a brief 
account, such as I have been able to collect, of the 
Deckanf, together with a short history of our Mission 
at Ahmednuggur. 

In executing the first part of this plan, I shall be 
excused for detaining the reader a few moments, 
with a few remarks on India in general. Indian 
history may be divided into three general periods : 
the period before die conquests of the Mahomedans ; 
the period of the reign of the Mahomedans ; and this 
period since the nations of Europe have held large 
possessions in India. 

The history of the first period is so enveloped 
in the mists of fable, that it is difficult to distinguish 
troth from fiction. Still, I do not think j^is true, 
that no tmces of the history of this ancflt people 
have comedown w ofc The ffindetf himself fur- 



i- • 


* ' ' xavb.opi'bs JUMmoxrs. 169 


nishes us a toy by which we may unlock the mystic 
door, tod cull frttoi the legendary store a few genuine 
Materials. The Hindoo invests every thing with 
the marvelous. Truth and honesty are too tame 
«nd inripid. To say that some renowned kinff 
lived a thousand years ago, made eoqquests, csta- 
Mbheda great eApire, administered his government 
with justice, protectedHmduoism, fe& tfe BrataDuns, 

^nbcrfrodeMr in charity to the poor, reigned thirty years, 
and. died at the age of eiity, would be too -Insipid a. 

, taU to ottiHnand the perusal xtf an^aae. The hero, 
therefore, must be invested with a divine character; 
ftpiust be said he was an iocaraatkm of die Deity j 
that he flourished two millions of years ago ; that he 
warm stitare like ihe cocoa-nut ttee ; that he lived 
a thousand years; fought with the giants; imprisoned 
thirty-three millions of gods; tore mountains front 
Aeie foo^dafciooalo'construct a bridge over the sea; 
gate tycfa of rupees to the Brahmuai; became a 
tetter to Indra, the km£*f the gods, on account of 
Mtfy ie q r ; paid eourt to the sen, and received from 
him some invaluable boon ; aakl, like Vitgift Hew^ 
jUeronrted into the irifcrnaT regions, and vifted the 
fllpnes id iris lathers.* The Hindoos though tht 
Meet incredulous about historical truth, feeh ^e 

. *me**T in believing snch kind of history. Such 
*» bfs habit* ttf thinking, and such the character of 
hhaaejned books, 4ha* he seems quite incapable of 

* + Jfach if thehietofT of tfc« gn*i king Vicram; of central ladit; 

» i 

• # 


170 «m totr* tmm. 

Meting* the Hiked troth; Hem* feu, that. the 
accounts which the ll iideo e havevtrf ithe loeatiedj 
ejf the deluge, of the snbseifneit peeling ef the 
earth, and of the rise told progress of the* iadlata 
empire, are so wrapped op hi. the most menUUm 
fiotiena, that, at first view, we are readytoaay? flaw* 
in not a particle of tmth to be fonnd'tir I MW a rtiott 
hedropeneous mass of rubbish. 

The Hindoos divide t|me into four peeieVs^witirii - 
are called yoogs : the last of which periiHIay |&e 
<me in which' we are now hrHjg,) is catted theltales 
yoeg; the present year, (I8S5,) is the 4930th yedr 
of this yoog. What accursed atncmg fcnortafe4n*i££ 
the three first periods of the world) we knoei ne* ; ato 
records remain. TrttdUkm hem steps m;te JMafaX 
Jmd pretends to supply the •• deficiency. We t s al f u» 
however, little front her, 'except that Tirtbe <anfl 
troth predated in the first period^<aod MaHHsl 
one hundred ttwsanfl years. : In <{i»seeeslft yuitas\ 
Only thiee parts of the creation otfcy*tif*lfe<%saftta* 
of God, and: ton hred ten ttoosahd ^ye^folnl 
the third period, haft the tmreatfcn fae^aantxeorrnp^ 
arid the agd ef mm was tarn** todth*toim&ym&i! 
DUrin^ the last period, rt&n har depfartat tftuMii '<f 
rectitude of hi* fkhera^only A fourth 'pfeitifregftflf 
die dictates of God, nad human M (ememtmM^A 
"hundred years* Tfee oataoaencement 'Oft fr hc -ftfadts 
Yoog, it wilt be eeen* does not taferiattjr^tffcf **** 
the Mosaic date of the portion. . t . . ;< *, ♦• ' 


- . w 


Xh**04*rf of** fiwt eito^i*!***, appeal* 
**ra ufc* MabadBu*^ (at* Wt*a *pomi) to bwrft 
fern &riabi*. This ;tree»t took pl«* mod aftaf 
flN» cnn^pmnpn mate of the Katee^ypog, Kxishna and 
^*0**P*Y ^i« bttddied years, la,*** 
feign, teaftusg is taid to. bane fltwrishad, and, tho 

into^fata^, Then foHpvad ft 
of sixteen or> etgHn dyqptie*. The 
citepapa^ lliftJB a riq f w owe IriKt came dovm entire 
tift. alp**, QQ6: kmdjrad and seventy yews betas* 
Gturet^tohen it was dissolved by civil disclord aod 
*l*r. Prioees and governors of different provinces 
assumed the jqppaarane*of independent sovereigns, 
fuid look the name .of emperors. Still, tfyere wqf 
nttiir/^nmnia * regular succession of kings. In- 
dtay though m longer united in one great empire^ 
toto*«ttf pow er&il ^r«i riclu No foreign invasion 
taditthofttstgdher resources. If we may. judge from 
^mmmM^iComfuttSi rniAluxnrieepf lift, vhichth* 
^j^flnnqptrose feind, we must before tbat.Indifc 
*sa» qnee a tan* <ttr*iei of Hfcavftny above aim** 
*i*y, nation on the &ee t of the, earth* And may wia 
n*t indulge the platting ,s**ppe*HiMi that she one* 
ItMOffcAfeftd *fo*ed the Author of ber blessings? 
AsMtfAtf langntftfoi India J thy present degradation* 
'tUygittiU Thoaha$tW*lwatbe : Lord thy 
Th<^>hirt;i^beartooi^tobL»i?aice, tool* 

™ ^^^w.J*Ji^*» •^^IW ^^i^PB^BK^*Pin#*^Pw^P^^'J ^MH ^•^^ '^^P*'*%^'^H 

• . 

,'•».- . 

IT* ran cmm m* " A » 

FrfafcfrlicihM nm— loflod Ihnrij Aon hast tnwsd sniiVn 
after other gofe to serve them ; and «B the cam* 
jnronouDoed-against rebellious Israel have fallen on - 
thee I <Thou art cursed in theeity and in ttoe fteti; 
theu art cursed in thy basket aad thy;. store; *hou 
art cursed in the fruit of thy body, ia the fruit oftfay* 
flocks, and in thy landsf thou ait cursed when thou 
oomest in, end when thou geest out I The Lord hsl 
pent upon thee cursing, vexation, aadttebuke, m mil 
that thou wouldst do ! The pestilence > shaves to 
thee I The Lord has smitten thee with consuiript 
tjoo, with fever, with extreme boning, and with the 
sword, and with basting and mildew, and (hey will 
pursue th^e till thou perish 1' ' .* 

With the exception of the invasion of Ataxwder 
the Great, three hundred and twenty-seventy ears 
before Christ, India seems scarcely to have suffered 
from foreign aggression, till about the year? of tha 
Christian era 1000, when the Mahomedans titmn 
Persia, first began, in good earnest, to make 
east of the Indus. They came, they sav% they 
quered. Nothing in modern times has equalled tha 
ferocity ahd desperation of the first MafaQneda* 
conquests in India. • Urged on by a madoatfafaiarib; 
intoxicated whh the hope erf rich booty, and inspired 
With the promise of beatitude4n paradise if they <ip| 
fighting with the ipfidets, they pounced like tigera 
upon their prey. A fertile country was left desolate; 



*■ by ti* jromraw»iiiff. tW 

<eni iiihMg cidfeSy freaps trf ruiiw ;-*»d rf vew fcact^ 
to their firfhere, flowed with the blood of their ooinv- 
arymen> Palaces were burnt, temples pillaged, and 
ifce>pabfccL works ofages destroyed i» a? day . Silver, 
gold, jewels, precisoe atone*, were, neither oOoated 

* nor woigfted, but estimated by die matind (twenty- 
ejfktqpNib) or by camel leads, M y Knife dor not 
^eemifiofitdotail. Suffice it to say hew, they were 
eeoa^thfrlspdsef the land, and despots over the tift^ 
o&udin£ Hindoos, Ialamism became the national 
ndtftott, and the only road tto peace or preferment. 
The Hindoos from this hour became bondmen ant 
•laves to- foreign • masters. Their chains have* been! 

* riveted on them by as tw e oc a t o n of fconquerers, till 
fre e d o m , patriotism, and nathmal virtae have-qafttf 
dtappaatt&Jtom the land. Bat att the eakmtfcfetf 
wfctchwereso ansparmgty teiieted by the infurialed' 
ssal of the Mpsfean, were bat tfre beginning of a**i 
raw to the deroted Hindoo. These wfcre' bat ; «he r 
oamasoneMMnt^ of a> *arie*«of www and' rapines/ 
wtoafi we#et© taty waste the land, impoverish' thte* 
oenatry, and drive t& the verge of desperation, a 
opice prosparoua, and a comparatively hapjty people. 
Tft carcass bad begtro to be earn? d fcd now ne*^ 
'flights j»f birds o# prey and passage, were atfraeted' 
flo*n the western worHL '£ooti they were seen- 
hovering over thefr pwjr. The Portuguese, the 
Dated, the French, and the Engtish, have, ali'iti' 


their turn, aatu^thtir rapacity to tf^ 
natives of India. * 

. I a void at present enter^g into any det»l of the 
$memn$ whiok iave been adopted by these several 
nations, to gain possessions in In<tta. «Tbe history 
"of their unparalleled crimen violated treaties, 
bloodshed, treachery and devastation," will standi re- 
corded m the book of God'* unerring «i*tiiory»,aBil 
cannot fail to be made manifest in, the day of dffine 

Of the European nations who have abated in 
<be plunder of India, pnd who tave, and*rte still* 
hold possessions there* the English are fey far the 
nsqpt .prominent . The power of tfie other European 
nations has long si*ee been on the wane, and is jdowi 
reduced to thegfrvertaaaenief a few smell province^ 
The dominion of the English extends from tht 
Indus to China, and Jfrom the Hyuiityia mountain* 
to $*pe Coaoroorin. Within, Jhjese extended* bono* 
daries, thepre axe* it is true, several nation* who fancy > 
theofslTes independent, and thejr atre,*a*l to be so* 
Some of these ase termed allies, ##m independent, 
and others d^pendfsnt (states. But ftey4t^ wjr. 
HUlei except » name* and in the define of tfceiMter 
pendenoe, Ttoey aje direotly q^ indkgptty eubfet; . 
vient to the East India Qtmpany. Let them but 
actj as if th$y tcwre independent stages, and they 
W& so<?n r aw*ke ftojn their* pte*#ait delusion* 



We have a specimen of tfiei* reaJ condition, in the 
case of the Ra)* of Sattara. He fancies himself an 
* mtepenfeit prince ; has an English Uesidmt placed 
at his capital ; is- required to keep* tfp a specified 
military farce) to be officered by Englishmen. This 
is. what is calW i subsidised force. • The same 
is. to jta found among all the- independent princes of 
India. » The policy on the part of the invaders, in 
imposing on their dependents this ' subsidised force, 
is a consummate piece of worldly wisdom, and in well 
underwood by the English* In this way they vir- 
'fn*Uy secure the army of those who might becoaift 
their opponents. They secnie the patromfcgfe for thq 
meet lucrative offices in these ftates, which, in Bag* 
land iaso higMy* valued, as to make this one of the 
greatest advantages derived from their Eastern pbe-i 
session*.* By allowing Jbese states* many of. which; 
afemot fertikf; and but ; spaiefcly .peopled; t& goverri 
themselves, they derive more adviprtagte than. they 

* would be lifaely to teatim/ were they tp assume the 
reins of government pvnr them. The Raja of fifet*: 
tara, is not allowed to go out of bis own capital, or 

• tosee*uniEnglishman,nof even an officer of his own 
arihy, if he be an Englishman,, without permission 
firom^t he Resident. The truth is, these prinoes only 
retain* the 'shadow of psrwer ; and this will . vanish 
vhen, the interest or the, will of the Bast India Com- 
pufiy shall requite it.. The Residehfa are kings; 
the tfrintes are vaseala. ■' . . ; 


, The. p m n m in m of the Bngfob r in Iafea, age 
s»n» aoMiaiv)*4taui is generally suppceed. Tbe» 
toutiBim, in the manner Ibavedteribed, etobraoni 
a popokukm-of .abort one hundred and fifty roiHiotWi 
Their vast teatitories have, beiptoforef 1mm divided 
into three portions, called Prtsideoetae, vix-. Be* 
gal, Madras, and Bombay. A new Ptawkacy baa 
recently been added, in the north of India, the capi* 
talnf which hrAgra. Bach of these has its gov* 
erooi. The Governor of Bengal m. the Gomrnot 
General of all India; and the other Governors*** 
nboedinate tohim. .He enjoys an innmrnyanA sup* 
pacta a statodignity,. scancaly inferior . to that of the 
kingofEagbixL Mia palace, in external appearance 
atlp4nt,fcrsarpasseefii.Jaiiie8 ? iaLondon»andisjBMQt 
inferior to the aeffipeJeoB. A^lihe heads of govern- 
ment ace princes; *nd Calcutta,, the capital, of alt 
India, is well nftqwd the Chy of JMtaes. Tim 
revenue of India/ which is eRortaons,:and.wfaicht 
buudens the poor natures; beyond any thing \Hriob 
they can much longer endure, is said to he innta 
quate le the expenses of government Th& soil is. 
the immediate property of the government, which 
the people cultivate as vassals. 

A vast army is, of course, required to ensure the. 
peaceful poesaefrtori of such a country. The majors 
ity of the soldiers a|e sepoys, enlisted in the country, 
disciplined in European tactics, and invariably offis 
cered by Englishmen. No native is avowed to bold' 



Irraffi&r nmn. * - Iff 

. any office of trust, or- of much profit. The taiHtary 
„ fcfrck i* diflbs6d over the whole country. * Every 
* stibrig* hold is secured, and every large town, or other 
im portant place,' is garrisoned. Hence, in whatever 
fc |wtrt of India* we go, we meet wkb people of out 
own color and language, in different ranks in life,* 
* but all connected with the government We find, „ 
at every important rmfctary .station, Christian ' 
churches and chaplains, and nominal t/hristians, and 
a few real Christians. We also find, in these insu-. 
1ft ted spots, which are like little smiling islands hi the 
ttridsfof the dark ocean, comfortable and elegant 
houses, beautiful gardens, refined and intelligent gen- 
tlemen and ladies, European markets, roads, bridges, 
^carriages, and all that goes to make up the com* 
*brte ami the elegancies of life. What a contrast be- 
tween tkie conquerors and the conquered ! 

The \q$i important acquisition, which the Eng- 
lish have made in India, is that of the Mahratha 
country) in th& Deckan. This was done in the year 
1818. The prince of the Mahratha states being in 
his minority, the government was administered by 
thePeshwa, (prinUe minister.) The Pfeshwa had 
.confined the young prince in the fort at Sattara, un- 
der the pretext, that he was non compos mentis ; 
: ^ and had assumed the reins of government himself. 
It is unnecessary to detail the causes that led to the 
war which terminated in the subjugation of those 
states to the British rule, and sent Barjee Row, the 


Iff 0OWH1A&* <*h&m WaWA. 

fesh«r»,ga a t«g pttgilaMgp to the faolyaity of 
- Peaates, with a pmnim oftSQOftPO mp»a» a yaarl. 
I^Wltowaa*d0iJUd*p*fte3, jh seeouat a£ iba" 
^fcmfeaa coarse of ptHqy whieh be adopted*, bfttfe 
tawatf^s the English and native gorenmtfntei a«»» ^ 
*tfe efaatueemit* Bat whether *te»Tfogfeh yfmm 
right, iiv judgiag thit his msTbl* and bis treachery 
afinded a just grouad ftr the© to sfttastiftaterWhat 
they thought a better form of govetiHk***, I leerae 
for tba politician todeefdo. Tha feot is before «% 
that they did It j aad in this conquest, added afatibar 
bug* tract of territory to their already eveigroar* poar 
sessions; aod again repleaded their eefitp wpHfe 
the wealth of ifa.e Peah w*. . But ia this, a* h» *M Jbfete 
coaqplapts, thai* ia a semMaaeerol virtue aad* jue* 
tice. They espoused the .cause. of therightftilJ»eir 
to the throne, and P*t down the Uttjif*r.v*fc*t 
what did they do with the usurper f A and- what 
with, the lawful heir of the Mahrath* states?, Tfc* 
fouuer<tbey seat $o Bteneres* the Wy frity ofall.J&r 
dia, with a rich fansjau of*8Q0$0e rupees? $4O0#©e 
a year; and to the latter tbey gaye-#$M*ra, hie 
former prispn, aqth a small province «*4p*e9fr 
Here ha wear* the crow% «d ai^beg ^el didht 
roptra, •.-..;.« i i» 

. * * - . . . , .<,,*- .- •- i'i!*' i . .ft 

■;« ! • \U o* *fi< 




* * 

• * 







'ttttte <* i aiCE 'taeuft 

* ■ 

■ . tt . * • 


;.**« : * ,. "• CHAPTER* I|/. •- • * «... • * 

. • <■ 

a^c« as a Missionwy FieM-~Itp iiuww Hiflt^^ 

**»*»> #oAi Declatn, BtiWffa, #> ftmtfr tountiy; u 
" • * a teta£ 'af ftftiteffHltt ifttfcffinite import ; ft Was ' 

JMtieriy applied by Hhafteo geographers to all tfie 
' OWnttie* «ritf cbifc »6tfr of Hi$ *Nerbuddah river: . 
, Bot the x Mfchfcmedans ft&ldmg &ope9nanentpos£e# . 
± * lKsti*satfdi of< the mer f&Mkita, ci^prK^dt the 1 name 
1 p»^an tc»th« cofiimi^ W>»^ >^re sitliatetf t>et\veen 
4l^ m© rivers, *?xi elrterklf^ ' 

a«hej#ast ? totteibsiy , of'B&ngjrf dlrthe east •• Since „ 
tbfeWiMf^este^b7*e'Englt8h, tbfe twin t«te uhde^ 
|oh#^toeh^Htt^ttt)0/ Whuf now if generally nri- 
di mto c wl toy ti&Deekan j i&h&fpa flt oftoe above-men- 
[ tkfced^ftlttrywh^^^ This 

f '; it ueUnde^M tfie nor* and fteattffl! by the Ne* 
* • ttfte'lui* tile Krftiitfa riifeft ; on th* west byth* 
*baut M«fcrt«&i*, aM on theease by 1ht3 Godavery 
.' liter, *Hkfe ^«rate#**torti the territories of the 
Niuam trfHydrabad ; fml^ti^t^^Mriets^T^ 
' . na } Ahme&iuggur, Candish r f>M^,*Wthe poised 
% Tbe^Deotean, thus Infait^l, towpejwriation/<tf 
. «ft** ti*U* liUtoa* ^tto*Hfoarths*D trtMHn flfntk 







* • » • 

1M - pxmxt mhjam «****. 

•• 4 

fhe> lfahratfca language. This territory comprise! 
an area of W,000 sqpaiO miles, and contains, accord* 
tag to Hamiltonte Indian Gexettoer, 9461 towns and 
'tillages ; TfB9 of whick belong to the British gown*' 
msnt And here the inquii^ vnil nattpalty ariee, 
to wh&n do the o#M*« belong 1 U tna^iheiefim^ 
be well hereto explain the peculiar manner in which % 
this part of the ootfotry ia«p oo a qttflcd . GoerenvMnis 
VriAiti governments are common, i bsMevfe, tbroqgh* - 
oat India. The origin of sneh a «tate> of things 
seems to have been this: martial chieftains, and 
others deserviqg well of the state wore rewarded, by . 
their prince, withthe government of a certain aunt* 
ber of cities or villages, according to their bravery, 
or the number of troops which they had famished, 
or the services which they had otherwise rafedevedb 
As one of jtheee chieftains iaereasW the anm b c r of 
Ms villages, ho increased his army m& tfstonded bis 
>ower, and in time became an independent* prince, 
rhis waa the case with tifiiia and Better, who 
rare once generals m the lteshwa'e army. They , 
*igHt/or Mm, till ho bad enabled them to figtft 
f *t**t* him ] then they fongbt for themseltes, and 
itaMished dominions in^central India, stiH holding 
to possession* which had been given them by tM 
tshwa, in the Deekan. • • * ,'• 

We wHl, for the stke of iitttstiMiQ£ tftfe wibjctt, 
to for an vmofU the district or «oHectontrfp of 
iBiWwggtr. Thit octttaia* • «c «*» »p«« 

the wunu of tillaoes. 181 

miles, and 2,647 towns and villages : one hubdsed 
and eight of these are ename, that is, they have 
been given as a present to families or individuals, in 
consideration of some important service which the 
parties have rendered to government ; one hundred 
and ninety-eight are jarghires, (freeholds) : one hun- 
dred and seventy-nine belong to Sindia ; eighty to 
Holkar, and forty-four to the Nizam of Hydrabad. 
These different persons own their respective 
villages, and exercise in them their several govern* 
merits independent of each other. There is also 
another description of land and village proprietors, 
whose tenure, to the ear of an American, appears 
somewhat curious. Lands and villages are owned 
by Hindoo gods.' These places, which are not a few in 
number, have, at some former period, been given by 
their respective owners, to their favorite deities; 
and the revenue of each village is, from this time, 
devoted to the supposed benefit of its god. This is 
expended in the different services at the temple, as 
bathing the god, burning incense, fanning the idol, 
sweeping the temple, and such like ; in sacrifices, 
feastings, and processions ; and in the support of as 
great a number of Brahmuns, and wives of the god) 
as the revenue will allow. The reader will have a 
better idea of these religious establishments, when 
lie has read the eighth chapter of this part of the 

Hence H is that the traveler or the missionary, is 


moras or vnxAw. 

heard to speak of being in the possession of differ- 
ent native princes, in the same region of country, and 
in the same day. In traveling twenty miles, we 
may preach in one Tillage belonging to the English; 
another to Stndia ; a third to Holkar ; and a fourth the 
property of Gunputtee or Khundoba. This state of 
things existed under the native governments, and 
has been permitted to remain by the English as they 
frond it The same state of things seems to be 
alluded to in the New Testament The servants, to 
whom a nobleman oommkted his goods, were re- 
warded by their master, according to their fidelity ; 
one with " ten cities," another, " with five cities." 
One half of the villages in the vicinity of Ahmed- 
nuggur, are subject to Sindia or Holkar, whose capi- 
tals are in central India. The suttee has been abol- 
ished under the rule of the British government, but 
not in the dominions of these princes. Hence it is, 
that thfc suttee is performed in the very heart of the 
English possessions, but not under their govern- 
ment- One of these horrid scenes took place, in 
Feb. 1834, within five miles of Ahmednuggur, and 
no notice was taken of it by the English government 
Five widows, the wives of one chief, were burnt 
about the same lime, within twenty-five miles of Bom* 
bay. Perhaps the English authorities cannot, con- 
sistently with their stipulations with these govern- 
ments that they will not interfere with their religion, 
directly control these things ; butts they eon con- 

tral when, policy requires, trhjf may &ep npt what 
right, and humanity demand 3 

The indulgence, which Brahmunistii haa re» 
cemd im the existing government, is, in my fift 
fcion, repnahnnsiMa in the highest degree. There 
are many good, men, both in England and in the 
nervine of government in India, whot aft sadly 
grieved a* such a state of things, bat «re unable to 
apply the remedy. Treaties vara entered i4ta> and 
atipuktions were made with the different native 
powers, whan they yielded to British, domination, 
which put it beyond the power of the pmeent JSk* 
entiie to pursue thai stern Christian policy, which, 
aa a Christian nation, to a nation of idolaters, they 
are most solemnly bound to pursue. The peasant 
government is reduoed to the sad alternative of 
violating a most mnchristiam treaty, or of sagarding 
it They have Deceived large sums of money, ea 
the price.of , idolatry, aa in 4he ease of the pilgrim- 
tax; and perhaps still larger sums go out from their 
treasury every year, for the rapport of Hindooism, 
as in the ease of the revenues allowed to difiemttt 
temples. As a sort of offset against some of these 
things, they support schools for the natives, on the 
principles of frie toletatton, not allowing religion of 
any kind to be taught in them. Aa the teaoherl 
aie iddlaCora and priests, and the scholars am idol*- 
ton, and^need no teaching to keep them so, theses 
tefaretf^ amwuits oely to this, that Ckristmnily 

shall not be taught intbem* 1 hart had an_ oppor- 
tunity of seeing hew the prinoiple of these acboola 
operates, both in Ahmednnggur, cad other places, 
and have found such sebopls much more opposed to 
Christianity than those are, which are wholly under 
the patronage of the Hindoos themselves* 

As the Deckao> in all probability, may soon be- 
ooroe the principal field for the benevolent operatiqps 
of the American churches in Western India ; both 
on account of its presenting a wide and almost un- 
occupied field, and from the fact that there are there, 
fewer obstacles to the pleasant and successful prose- 
cution of missions by Americans, a short account of 
its former history will, I believe, be very acceptable 
to the inquiring reader. Every thing which goes to 
elucidate the history of a heathen nation, is a step 
gained towards its Christianization. Christians can* 
not be brought to act for the emancipation of India, 
till a corresponding/eeting' be excited ; and this fed* 
ing will not exist till these be a corresponding 
knowledge of the character, condition, and history of 
the people for whom they are called on to feel and 
to act 

I shall not here attempt to trace back the history 
of this part of the peninsula, beyond the first Mu- 
hummudan invasion of India, in the year 1000* 
Previous to this important epoch, the Deckaneee 
seem to have been united with the other Indian 
fttates, in one great empire, or to have (at certain 


periods at least) enjoyed an independent kingdom 
<rf their own, in which they Jived, undisturbed 
by foreigners, and in the enjoyment of all lbs 
peace and happiness which a Hindoo govern* 
ment is capable of affording. So it was* when the 
Moslems first turned their hostile spears towards the 
Deckan, in the year 1292. Ramdeo was the reign* 
ing prince. His capital was Deoghire, now called, 4 
Dawlatabad. The name of the first invader* waa 
jUla, nephew of the emperor of Delhi, and .eoa* 
Blander of his forces. As the diameter of the con- 
tending parties, the wealth and imbecility of Abo 
Hindoos, and the rapaci6usnett and cruelty i of the 
Mussulmans, are developed in the account which 
has been handed down, of this irst invasion* of* the 
Deckan, I shall give it somewhat in detail. 

The arms of the Mahummudans had now for 
more than two centuries been victorious in Hindecn 
stan. The terror of their approach struck a panic 
in every heart. The rumor of an advancing army; 
reached the capital of Ramdeo — and- Alia, with 
a numerous host, was soon encamped before the 
palace. Resistance was vain, and the panio^tmck 
prince offered terms. Alia accepts fifty mattods 
of pure gold,* a large quantity of pearls and jewels, 
fifty elephants, and one thousand horses. On these 
conditions AUa retreats. But the son of Ramdeo, 


MS aixa's nctoEY. 

returning at this time, with an army to the capital, 
attacks the retreating foe, without the order or 
knowledge of his father. Enraged at this supposed 
perfidy, the Tartars give battle to the idolaters, dis- 
perse them with great slaughter, and will not now 
stay the work of destruction, or spare the kingdom, 
bat on the following almost incredible conditions : 
That Alia should receive, on evacuating, the coun- 
try, six hundred maunds of pure gold, seven maunds 
of pearls, two maunds of diamonds, rubies, emer- 
alds, and sapphires ; a thousand maunds of silver, 
four thousand pieces of silk, and a long list of other 
precious commodities, which surpass all belief; to- 
gether with the cession of Blichpoor and its de- 
pendencies. Laden with this rich booty, Alia re- 
turned, murdered- bis emperor, Ferose IL, who 
had come to pay him a friendly visit, and assumed 
the royal umbrella. 

Here I must be indulged in a short digression, 
fehr the sake of delineating more fully the character 
of this extraordinary man. Alia mounts the throne 
Of Delhi in 1296 ; is twice invaded by the Moguls ; 
meets them with an army of 300,000 horse and 2700 
elephants; repulses them with great slaughter ; forms 
the plan of establishing a new religion, but is dis- 
suaded by a sage, named Alia ul Muluck ; devises 
a scheme for universal conquest Fearing con- 
spiracies and insurrections in his empire, he de- 
manded of his omrahs (nobles) what were the pria- 

alla'b gbabactol 1OT 

cipal causes of the prevailing disoaders. Among 
other causes, they declared, " thai the pubhc use of 
wine was the source of many disorders ; for whea 
men form themselves into societies, for the purpose 
of drinking, their minds are disclosed to one another, 
while the strength of the liquor, fermenting their 
blood, precipitates them into the most desperate un- 
dertakings." He then published an edict against 
the use of wine and strong liquors, upon pain of 
death. He himself set the example to his subjects, 
and emptied his cellars into the streets. In this, 
says the historian, he was followed by all ranks of 
people, so that for some days the common sewers 
flowed' with wine. He endeavored to equalize pro- 
perty by laying taxes on the rich. His pomp, 
wealth, and power, was never equalled by any prince 
in Hindoostan ; his household servants were 17,000. 
In one day he massacred in the streets of Delhi 
15,000 Mogul slaves; He is, perhaps, but a fair 
specimen of the first conquerors of India. Their 
character presents an extraordinary compound of 
the brave, the savage, the noble, the cruel, the gene- 
rous, the avaricious, the devout, the profane. 

Alia, now emperor, completed the-conquest of the 
Deckan ; and, in 1306, carried Ramdeo prisoner to 
Delhi, and made his country a province of the great 
empire. In the early part of the 14th century, the 
Emperor, Moohumud the Third, having visited 
Deoghire, and become much captivated with the 

186 Biroumoto 

place, formed die wild plan of removing his capital 
thithar from Delhi, changing the name of Deoghire 
la that of Dawlatabad (or the fortunate city). " He 
therefore," aaya the historian, * gave orders for Delhi 
to be desolated, and men, women and children to 
migrate to Dawlatabad. He commanded trees to 
be torn up by the root, and planted in regular rows, 
to afford the emigrants a shade." After haying at 
most ruined Delhi, and afflicted his subjects with 
incalculable losses and sufferings, by compelling* 
them to remove to a strange country, 760 miles from 
their old habitations, the scheme was abandoned as 

From the year 1347 to 1518, there reigned in the 
Deckan a succession of Muhummudan sovereigns, 
who seem to have been independent of the emperor 
at Delhi. On the dissolution of this Deckanee king- 
dom, the Deckan was divided into the four foMow* 
ing kingdoms: Bejapoor, Berar, Qolconda, and 
Ahmednuggur. Of the latter I shall speak in its 
proper place, where it will be seen, that an earlier 
date is given to the origin of that state than is assign- 
ed here. The seeming discrepancy doubtless arises 
from the probable fact that the real or claimed inde- 
pendence of Ahmednuggur, was some few years 
prior to its nominal, or acknowledged indepen* 
deuce. • 

These independent states preserved their sove- 
reignty till about the year: 1600, when they were 

partially conquered by Acbur" the Gjwt, and 
snore made a put of the empire of Delhi 

During the reign of Jehanghire, the successor of 
Acbur, the Deckan remained his tributary — half 
subdued, half independent, bat always rebellion* 
The complete subjugation of the country, however, 
^ras left for that extraordinary character in Indian 
history, Anrungzebei He was the " great Mogul," 
who sat on the throne of Delhi, when the " East In- 
dia Company" commenced their career in Hindoo- 
Stan ;' and who is so often mentioned in the early 
history of British India. He was the great-grand- 
son of Acbur, and the son and successor of the em- 
peror Shah Jehan. He is known, also, in history, 
by the title of All nmghire, conqueror of the world.* 
He is, as I said, called great ; and so he was ; great 
in war, great in council, great in his pretensions to 
devotion, great in wading through the blood of 
his family to the throne, and greatest of all in dupli- 
city, dissimulation, and hypocrisy. He commenced 
his public career, when only thirteen years old, as 
viceroy of the Deckan, under Shah Jehan, his fa- 
ther. The different provinces were now subdued, 
and brought under a more complete subjection than 
had been done in any former reign. The capital 
was, in 1634, transferred from Dawlatabad, to the 
neighboring town of Gurka, which becoming the fa- 

• Shah Jehan means king of the worM— Jehangire. lard of the 
world. Ornament of the world, sun of women, light of the seraglio, 
are term* of respect applied to honorable femeiet. 

rate residence of Aurungtobe, daring Ms viceroy* 
alty in the Deckao, received the name of Aurung- 

During die long and prosperous rtign of Au- 
rangzebe at Delhi, which oootifiued fifty yean, and 
eouoloded with his death in 1707, the Deckan re- 
mained a province of his vast empire. A fermidar 
hie power was now rising in western India, which, 
daring the last years of bis reign, occupied all his 
resources, and could only be kept in check by his 
extraordinary mind. The Mahrathas, a people 
comparatively of recent origin, and known only as 
pirates on the coast, or marauding tribes id the in- 
terior, gave him great trouble. Although overaw* 
ed till the death of Aurungaebe, they then seized on 
tnast of the southern portions of his dominions, and 
sat up a new empire in the western provinces of 
the Deckan. Nizam ul Muluck took the eastern 
portion, which is still held by his successors. 

Sewajee, a name well known in Indian history, 
was the first who consolidated the Mabratba em* 
fare, by combining the efforts of the different mtlita* 
ry and predatory chiefe. He was born in 162&, and 
died in 1680. The Mahrathas very soon became 
possessed of the most formidable empire in Iudin 
in the year 1740, we find, them in possession of the 
whole of die Deckan, and of the Sou* of India, 
Their dominions, eastward, were bounded by the 
sea, and stretched north and south from Agra to 


CHA&AOMft or TBI lUMuraii. Ml 

Cape Gomorin. They had ransacked and burnt 
Jtethi, the capital of the Mogul empire. The con* 
quests of the Maforathas were of the worst possible 
character* They never lost their predatory habits* 
They acted the part of robbers — not of conquerors— » 
who overcame, not to aggrandize themselves by 
possession, but to enrich themselves by plunders 
They swept over the country like devouring locust* 
They conquered, they massacred, they plundered, 
they burnt, and only left behind them the most 
dreary desolation. Their empire, though for some 
time formidable, and at different periods extensive, 
continued to wane till its final overthrow by the 
English, in 1817. 

I have given only the outlines of a history, which 
it would require some volumes to fill up. But this 
is sufficient for my present purpose. JThe predatory 
spirit of the Mahiathas is now broken. They are a 
peaceable, inoffensive people. Though many of the 
chiefs of their tribes are still living, and possessed of 
their hereditary estates, there seems no apprehension 
of a revolt. The people in general are extremely 
poor. The cultivators are hard working and indus- 
trious, and appear to be possessed of *ome integrity. 
Still indolence, the hereditary disease of the Hindoo, 
characterizes the majority of the people. The higher 
orders of ttfe people are daily sinking in importance* 
Their hereditary possessions are wasting away with* 
oUt the hope of recovery. The Brahmuns are 


draggling to maintain their superiority, but m vain. 
Blind as the people are to their gross impositions) 
and corrupt as is the character of their priests, and 
slow as the multitude are to fleam from foreigners 
a lesson which they ought to have known long ago 
without teaching, they seem not unlikely to be com- 
pelled, by their poverty, and the many ills which 
they suffer, to throw off a yoke which has galled 
their race from time immemorial. The Brahmuns 
in their turn complain of the degeneracy of the times, 
and long for, but despair of, the return of that 
"golden" age" when the poor Hindoo thought it an 
honor to kiss the dust of his feet, and would not pass 
him without an offering. If craftiness, address, and 
consummate management could extort money, (where 
one would suppose none is to be had,) then the Brah- 
mun might still be, pampered on the hard-earned 
pittance of the poor : or if pride, and high pretensions 
to sanctity, and unblushing claims to diviuity, could 
insure the respect and adoration of the unthinking 
multitude, the Brahmun would not fail to be honored 
and adored, as he was wont to be in the golden age. 
God grant that the unhallowed spell may soon be 
broken — that the pride of the one, and the blind 
superstition of the other, may be forgotten in that 
universal benevolence, which breathes peace and 
good will to all. 






Account of the Deckan continued.— Face of the country, ctimata, 
seasons, soil, productions*— Walled towns.— Open oo*ntry.~ 
Flocka and nerds. — No roads.— Mode of conveyance.— Rivers,- 
Chief towns. — Sketch of Poona. 

The Deckan has an elevation above the sea-coast 
of about 2000 feet It may be called an extensive table 
land of the Eastern and the Western Ghauts. la 
traveling from Bombay to Ahmednuggur, we pass 
over the low and level lands of the Concon, which 
are either occupied as rice fields, or contain large 
groves of cocoa-nut trees, and ascend these nigged 
mountains on the west, by a winding road to Kan- 
dalla, a village at the top of the Ghauts, and a place 
of some celebrity, as a convalescent station for Euro- 
pean invalids. This road is a work of enormous 
magnitude, and does honor to the enterprise of the 
English Government, at whose expense it was con- 
structed. The view from the top of the Ghauts is 
grand and beautiful. In the back ground rolls the 
western ocean, stretching to the limits of human 
vision, and losing itself in the distant view of the 
blue sky. Under your feet, but nearly two thousand 
feet below, commences an extensive plain, intersected 

„ by numerous streamlets, divided by deep furrows 




into rice fields, or covered with groves of the straight, 
slender, and stately cocoa-nut tree, or diversified 
with the mango tree, with its thick and beautiful 
foliagt, and its wide-spreading branches. Other 
portions are overrun with an underwood, and pre- 
sent, from this distant and elevated point, a covering 
of eternal green. The rugged mountains themselves, 
afford the most sublime scenery. Tbey form a most 
pleasing contrast with the surrounding country. 
Here we seem to get put of India, and once more to 
behold the scenery, and to breathe the atmosphere of 
our native land. During the rainy season, the 
natural grandeur of this scenery is greatly enhanced 
by the torrents of water which fall on these heights, 
and rush down in their forced channels, over the 
perpendicular rocks into the plain below. I have 
from one point counted more than twenty of these 
cascades, dashing over precipices of some hundred 
feet, and falling into one common basin, beneath. 

As the traveler winds his way through these 
frightful cliffs, he sees men and beasts of burden, 
borne down by their heavy loads, struggling to attain 
his point of elevation ; or he may see, almost over 
his own head, but on a different bend of the same 
zigzag road, a company of travelers bending their 
course to the suipmit. Here he breathes a cool and 
salubrious air, and regales himself with the pure 
water of a mountain spring. As he proceeds 
onwards towards Ahmednuggur, by the way of 


sacs of in cotnmnr. 106 

Foona, without descending, he travels over an im- 
mense plain, diversified by gentle undulations, or 
broken up by small abrupt hills and valleys, and 
intersected by a great number of streams and rivu- 
lets, which take their rise among the Ghauts. Ha 
also crosses, if it be in the dry season, the almost 
empty channels of four or five rivers, of the magni- 
tude of the Hudson, the Connecticut, the Delaware. 
During the rainy seasons these channels are full, 
and perhaps overflow their banks? (Job 6 : 15 — 20.) 
For eight months in the year, that is, during the 
dry season, the Deckan presents but little more than 
pne unbroken waste of barrenness and desolation. 
No hedges or fences; no houses except in the vil- 
lages ; no vegetation, except here and there a field 
about a well, or reservoir of water, called a garden ; 
and is artificially watered ; and scarcely a tree to 
cheer the prospect, except it be a fruit tree, or a 
shade tree about a village. The country presents a 
dreariness of aspect which must be seen to be de- 
scribed. From November till about the first of July, 
the country presents but one dismal aspect of parched 
earth, and barren rock. (Isa. 15 : 6.) But on the 
return of the rains, about the middle of June, grass, 
flowers, vines, weeds, and a most luxuriant vegeta- 
tion of every description, spring up, as if by magic ; 
and the fields, which a few days before seemed as 
destitute of the root or seed of vegetation as the ash- 
heap, are now covered with green herbage. The 


tana took seems to have vegetated. All natim 
Miles* The flocks and the herds ass no longer 
tbliged lo thrust their noses into the earth, that they 
may crop the dried stems of the grass, or extract the 
very root They are now led out to green pastures, 
(Psalm 23 : 2,) and, soon satisfied from the abundant 
herbage, they lie down by the " side of still waters, 
whither the shepherd, or the herdsman, has guided 
them, or repose under the shade of the mango. 

The eight dry months include both the cool and 
the hot seasons. The cool season commences with 
November ; and the hot season with March. The 
atmosphere in the Deckan, during the cool season, is 
dry, clear, and cool. The variations of heat and 
cold during the twenty-four hours, are much greater 
than in Bombay ; and, in consequence, the climate 
*s not so favorable at this particular season of the 
year, as it is on the sea-coast The extremes of cold 
and heat from twelve at night to twelve at noon, are 
about 46 and 80 degrees. Seldom however does 
' the mercury fall below 50 degrees, or rise above 70 
or 76. / 

From the first of March the weather becomes 
warm; but not always uncomfortably so, till the 
commencement of the hot winds, about the tenth of 
the month. These winds are a kind of sirocco, 
and resemble in a degree the heated air from the 
mouth of a burning furnace. There is nothing, 
however, pestilential in them. Europeans, if they 

clouts : hot iron*. Iff 

are strong and healthy, do not suffer from this 
son ; and those who are debilitated probably do not 
suffer on account of these winds, but rather on ac- 
count of the great degree of beat The mercury of 
die thermometer almost daily ranges from 90° to 
100°. This is greater, perhaps, than the heat at the 
same season in Bombay. But there is this differ* 
•nee. The nights in Bombay are as oppressive as 
the days ; while in the Deckan, the nights, during a 
greater part of this season, are comparatively cool. 
Hence we throw our houses open of a night, as far 
as our fears of thieves and robbers will allow of it ; 
and by breathing the refreshing air a few hours, 
we recover, in a degree, from the lassitude of an op- 
pressive day. At eight or nine in the morning we 
close every door and window, and, as far as possihle, 
shut out the heated atmosphere. In this way, a 
room which has thick walls, and not connected 
with the roof of the house, may be kept compara- 
tively, not always, tolerably cool. At four or five in 
the afternoon, our prison doors are thrown open, and 
we go forth to our duties without. We can also do 
the same of a morning. The extreme heat of this 
season is moderated in Bombay by the sea-breeze, 
which daily blows during the same hours as the hot 
winds in the Deckan. These winds are rendered 
hot by their passage over a great extent of heated 

The remaining season is called the wet or rainy 



This commences about the middle of June, 
tad continue! three, or three and a half months. 
Except in these mouths, a shewer of rain, or a mist, 
••Idem moistens the parched earth. On the sea- 
ooast, the rains during this season are almost inces- 
sant Day after day the water foils in torrents, until 
the tanks and reservoirs of water are overflowing, 
and many of the fields are inundated. The hea- 
vens are shfonded in blackness; the atmosphere, 
if not streaming with the descending flood, is damp 
and gloomy ; the whole surface of the ground is 
mud and water ; every thing is covered with rust 
or mould ; and nothing but the " bow in the cloudy" 
can aatify the mind that Bombay and the whole 
Concon is not about to sink into a watery grave, it 
need not be said that the sea-coast is an uncomfort* 
able as well as an unheahhful place in the rainy 

But not so die Deckaa. This is our most de- 
lightful and salubrious season. There we have 
alternate rain and sunshine. Genial showers, with 
intervals of clear weather, sometimes of two or three 
days, water the fields and nourish the springing 
vegetation. All nature wears a most lovely aspect, 
and only man withholds the expression of his grati- 
tude to the Great Author of all his mercies. The 
quantity of rain which falls in Ahmednuggur, is pro* 
bably less than a third part of what falls in Bombay. 
Hence Europeans, as far as their business will allow 

or their means will permit, endeavor to- spend the 
rainy season east of the Ghauts. Poona is the most 
common place of resort 

The month following .the rainy season, that is> 
October, may be regarded, in all this part of India, 
as the most unheahhful month in the year. Its 
insalubrity arises principally from the hot weather 9 
and the rapid decay of vegetable matter* The quick 
and luxurious growth of vegetation, which covered 
the whole face of the country, now vanishes mors 
rapidly than it appeared. The saturated, earth, 
again exposed to the rays of a tropical sun, sends 
up its vapors, and these come impregnated by the 
noxious miasma of the decaying vegetation. But, 
as has been said, the quantity of rain is moderate in 
the Deckan, when compared with that of the sea* 
coast, and consequently the vegetation is propor- 
tionally less. Hence this month in the Deckan is 
much more salubrious than in the Concon. Per- 
sons disposed to liver complaints, or subject to rheu- 
matism, are perhaps the only persons who are not 
likely to enjoy better health here than in Bombay ; 
or any part of the Concon. 

The soil of the Deckan in general is not fertile. 
If well watered and properly cultivated, it produces 
well. The cultivation in general is very miserable ; 
and not a sixth part of the land is cultivated at all. 
The soil is not suited to rice. Wheat may be grown 
in abundance. Bajree, zoondlee, and gram, are the 

■M mil: wtoroonows. 

staple productions of the Deckan, and supply the 
place of rice in the Goncon. Flax is grown ; bat 
the only part used is the seed, from which oil is 
made. The stalks are fine and short Hemp is 
also a common production, from which ropes, etc 
are manufactured. From the tops of the hemp, the 
natives make an intoxicating drink. The tops are 
plucked when green; and after being dried, are 
steeped in water and drunken. This is called 
Bhang* Nearly all European vegetables flourish if 
properly cultivated. Oranges, limes, plantains, ba- 
nanas, shaddocks, guavas, grapes, peaches, melons, 
and citrons, only require attention, to be produced in 
great abundance. The land is never manured. 
When the soil is exhausted it can only be recovered 
by allowing it to remain fallow>a few years. There 
being no wood in the Deckan the manure is con- 
sumed for fuel. 

The people in the Deckan, do not live on their 
farms, or scattered over the country, but compactly 
in villages. This practice probably originated 
from the insecurity which they have experienced on 
account of robbers and plunderers, with whom the 
country was formerly, and is still in some measure, 
infested. The number, size, wealth, and population 
of the villages which the traveler meets at any given 
distance, depend very much on the fertility of that 
part of the country. The distance from one village 
to another, is seldom less than two miles, or more 

WAUUED xowm. Ml 

than six. The number of booses varies from 1Q ot 
12, to 3000 or 4000. Every village is surrounded 
by a wallt aud secured by one or more gales. The 
wall is sixteen or eighteen feet high ; the lower part 
is built* of stone, and the upper part of sun-dried 
bricks. Nobody, except outcasts who are not at 
lowed to live in the village, resides outside the wall*> 
and no one will spend the night without the gates, 
if he can avoid it. A little before sunset, the peo» 
pie, who, in small villages, are mostly cultivators, 
may be seen coming from the fields in every direc- 
tion, bringing their farming utensils and driving their 
flocks and herds into the village. Nothing is allowed 
to remain without When the inhabitants have re- 
turned, and all is secure, which is usually before 
nine o'clock, the gates are closed, and kept during 
the night, by persons of the Bihar caste, who are 
the hereditary porters of the village. In the small 
villages, the people are all cultivators. In larger 
villages there are Brahtnuns, shop-keepers, artists, 
etc. Every village, unless it be very small and 
poor, contains a temple, a chawdee, (resting place 
for travelers, and place of resort for public business,) 
and a public tank. In large villages, these public 
places are numerous. 

Another feature of the Deckan is, that there are 
neither fences, roads, nor bridges. This, however, is 
not peculiar to the Deckan. Cows, sheep, goats, 
and buflaloes, are driven out from the villages in the 

IM snmn>s: hsidskkx. 

morning by their respective keepers, who attend 
them daring the day, " leading them by the side of 
still waters, and causing them to lie down in green 
pastures." The shepherd is always accompanied by 
his faithful dog ; carries a long stick, and wears 
over his head and shoulders a coarse blanket. He 
lives on the most familiar terms with his flock ; they 
know his voice, they follow him wherever he calls 
them ; he brings back those which stray, watches 
over the feeble, and takes care of the young ; " he 
gathers the lambs with his arms, and carries them in 
his bosom, and gently leads those that are with 
young." The pasture-grounds are for the common 
use of all. The shepherd and herdsman lead their 
flocks and herds wherever they choose, except over 
the tilled fields. These are not separated from the 
grazing lands by any fence or other barrier, but are 
guarded during the time of the ripening of the crop, or 
of the harvest, for the twofold purpose of securing the 
grain from the grazing cattle, and from the depreda- 
tion of birds and wild beasts. A rude scaffold is 
built for this purpose in the centre of the field, and 
a temporary hut (Isa. 1 : 8.) for the accommodation 
of the watchman. This office is generally perform- 
ed by a lad, the son of the husbandman, or some 
one employed by him for the purpose. The wild 
beasts which prey on the fields, are, for the most 
part, the wild hog, the bear, and deer. Those 

which distort) the flocks and herds are, the tiger^jtbe 
leopard, the bear, the wolf, the fox, and jackal. 

The villagers generally possess large numbers of 
cattle ; and, bat for their superstitious notions of ah* 
staining from the eating of flesh, these cattle would 
he valuable. As it is, however, they are of very lit- 
tle value. Their cows and goats yield but a small 
quantity of milk ; the wool of their sheep is extreme* 
ly coarse, and of very little account. Their oxen 
turn to good account, in the cultivation of their 
forms, for carrying burdens, and for riding* and dri- 
ving in the carriage. Those accustomed to the latter 
services, trot over the plain like horses, and are 
governed, by a rope in thq. nose or en the horns. 
Buffaloes are used in every respect as bullocks, or 
neat cattle are, though more common than eows 
for milk, but less frequently used than oxen for 
service. The buffalo is the ugliest animal in 
India. He is of a dirty brown color ; high bones 
and very long horns, sometimes pointing towards 
the ground, sometimes running nearly parallel with 
his back. Their horns grow at random, without the 
least form or beauty. The buffalo yields richer 
milk, and more in quantity than the cow. Still the 
latter is generally preferred. Camels are much used 
for carrying burdens. European travelers prefer 
them to any other conveyance. Natives ride them> 
European residents seldom. Asses are very com- 
mon about villages, where they are employed to 

carry bricks, slooe, dirty Ac, but aw not much used 
for tinseling. They are regarded at an animal of 
- wry Um casie, and their employment is similar to 
that of the working clam of women. No greater 
indignity can be put on a Brahman than to set him 
on an am. This is sometimes done as a punish- 
ment for petty offenoes. The Deekan abounds in 
homes. They are small, called tattoos, and need 
chiefly for riding, and carrying loads. The price of 
a horse is about ten dollars. An ox is worth six 
dollars, a cow about four ; a sheep or a goat half or 
thee quarters of a dollar. • The natives never eat 
beef, and very few eat mutton. They live principally 
on bread made of a cheap grain, wtiich they eat 
with a vegetable curry, or with Chili peppers. Half 
a dollar will support a man on this fore for a month. 
And their clothing is proportionally cheap. 

Except the government road from Bombay to 
Ahmednnggur, them are no roads in this part of the 
country but foot paths or bridle roads, crooked and 
difficult to be followed. A stranger cannot go from 
one village to another without a guide. While the 
natives formerly expended enormous sums, both of 
public money, and private munificence, in building 
and adorning temples, digging tanks and construct- 
ing holy places on their sacred streams, it never 
seems once to have occurred to them, that roads and 
bridges would be a public benefit, or a private con- 
venience. They traversed the country on hone* 


back, or on foot; and conveyed the produee of .the 
country to market on hillocks. Thee© ttavel about 
ten Mies a day, in companies of hundreds, seme- 
times of thousands. The men who perform tfcjf 
sarvioe are all called " Brittgaries^" /or carriers of 
grain. This* is their profession thraegh life. They 
travel from one part of the country to another m 
large bodies, wkh their wives, children, dogs, and 
all they possess. They carry >grain, or other mer- 
chandise, not on their own account, but as agents 
for others. The men go armed with swords, shields, 
and matchlocks, against robbers; and sometimes, if 
the country be insecure, they .employ a guard of 
Bheels.- These are the people* who are employed 
to supply armies when in the field with provisions; 
and it is not a little remarkable, that two contending 
armies allow them to pass .and repass without mo- 
lestation, though they may be known to be victual- 
ing the enemy's camp. They travel during the 
day about ten miles, allowing their bullocks to graze 
by the way; At night they encamp in a plain, un- 
lade their bullocks, form a wall of defence on three 
sides, by means of the bags of grain, and place their 
families, their household furniture, and their cattle, 
in the centre. The latter are arranged in a line, 
aqd connected together by means of ropes or chains. 
Around the .whole they place their dogs, who give 
the earliest notice of the approach of intruders ; and 


if they be In an insecure part of the country, one of 
the Binjariee stands sentry. 

During n»re than half the year, the largest 
rivers m the Deckan— rivers as large as the Con- 
necticut and Hudson — arefordable. On the approach 
of the rains they are swollen, and §H their broad 
channels. They are then crossed in boats. These 
boats, except where the government have provided 
them, are frequently only such as the traveler con- 
structs for himself on the spot. He takes a sleeping 
cot, (native bedstead, which is strung with broad 
tape,) and binds on a sufficient quantity of gourd 
shells to make it buoyant, under the weight to be put 
on it ; or the same object is gained by attaching four 
inveHed earthen vessels to the corners of the cot. 
Europeans, even ladies, have often been obliged to 
cross large rivers on this frail craft. 

The principal town in the Deckan is Poona. 
Ahmednuggur is the second place of importance. 
In the next rank may be placed Seroor, Malagaum, 
and Sholapool, which are military stations of the 
British government. Nassic, which is a missionary 
station of the church of England, and Junere, 
which, though not the residence of Europeans, is 
the next most desirable spot for the establishment of 
a mission. One person who shall occupy this station 
should be a physician. Poona and Ahmednuggur 
excepted I need say no more of these towns, than 

cmr of noma. Mt 

that they are central locations, mostly situated on 
principal roads ; and they contain from 10 to 40,000 

Poona was the capital of the Peshwa and of the 
Mahratha empire, situated about thirty miles east of 
the Ghauts, N. lat. 18° 30'. Considered as a capital 
of dominions so extensive, Poona was never large. 
It did not contain in the days of the PteShwa, more 
than about 100,000 inhabitants, and its aative popu- 
lation has probably not increased since. Another 
singular feature of Poona is, that it was never for- 
tified with a wall like the other towns and villages 
in the Deckan. It is sitnated in an open, defence- 
less plain, two thousand feet above the level of die 
sea, and at the junction of the rivers Moota and 
Moola. These rivers after their junction form the 
Mootamoola, which runs into the Beema. This 
river afterwards forms a junction with the Krishna, 
which falls into the Bay of Bengal, thus formings 
during the rainy season, a water communication 
from within seventy-five miles of the western coast 
of India, to Madras or Calcutta. Though not for- 
tified by walls, or by natural defence. Poona was 
still a very convenient capital. There are, in the 
vicinity, several hill fortresses, to which, in case 
of an attack, the people fled with- the archives and 
the valuables of the N place, after having set fire to 
the city. 

Poona contains several rather elegant buildings, 

flOt fbibwjAi yalacbb. 

truly elegant after their style. With the European 
taste of convenience and beauty, we regard Vie iow 
entrance, the narrow flights of steps, and the ssiall 
windows, or rather loop-holes of the palaces at Poo- 
na; as any thing but elegant -or comfortable. Nor 
tore we better pleased with gildings and gaudy paint* 
ings on the walls. Still we admire their dimensions, 
their architecture, and their Asiatic splendor. Two 
or three of these palaces, which were built by the 
kast Peshwa, and fancifully named after the days of 
the week, are still standing ; one is now occupied for 
an English school, and another is devoted to die 
purposes of government. It is said to have been the 
original design of the Peshwa to erect seven palaces, 
to be called Sunday, Monday, etc. Whether they 
were all to have been in Poona is uncertain. When 
he was dethroned he was erecting a palace at Pboot 
sharir, fifteen miles distant, which still remains in- 

The streets of Poona, which are narrow, crook* 
ed, and badly paved, are also fancifully named after 
mythological personages, adding the termination 
war ree, (street,) and the members of the Hindoo pan- 
theon are represented by paintings on the exterior of 
the houses. So that as one traverses the streets, he 
fcoay read the history of the Brahminical deities. 

A complete and most beautiful view of Poona, 
with its palaces ; its numerous temples pointing their 
unhallowed spires to heaven ; its gardens, orchards 

' , 

TAxmrrrxa bill. Ml 

of mango trees, and plantations ; its cantonments, 
and European settlements, and the extensive plains 
stretching on every side to the horizon, and inter- 
rupted only by a garden, a tope of trees, or a little 
hillock, may be had from Parwuttee Hill, about a 
mile west of the town. This hill itself is a most 
picturesque, charming spot, rising in the midst of 
a. fertile plain, to the height of a few hundred feet, 
and covered at the top with a rich and elegant esta- 
blishment of temples, and other idolatrous buildings, 
These, when illuminated on certain festivals, afford 
the spectator, in the city, a most brilliant and beauti- 
ful spectacle. In descending from this delightful 
Spot, by a broad flight of stone steps, you see at the 
bottom a large square field, enclosed with high briek 
walls. This is the field in which the Peshwa used, 
annually, to assemble the Brahmuns from "all parts 
of the country, and give them alms on a certain feast 
day. Begging their way from all parte of India, 
they came to Poona, when they were marked and 
shut into this field. They were then called out, one 
at ar time, and the gratuity bestowed. The Peshwa 
is said also to have offered premiums to the com- 
petitors for literary merit. An examination was an* 
nually held at Parwuttee, when the successful were 
rewarded with medals, sums of money, or other pri* 
aes, according to their respective attainments. 

There was another annual assemblage at Poona, 
near the same time, with the one above mentioned, 
of a more imposing, but of a less amiable charac* 

!8 #v 

ler , I msaa tto ftstrral of the Dussura (doorga 
fxiega). On this occasion, the great Mahratha 
ahtefr were in the habit of assembling at Poena, ac- 
companied by prodigious bodies of their followers, 
fct the celebration of this festival, preparatory to 
their predatory incursions. Having propitiated the 
goddess with offerings, and sacrifices of sheep, and 
consecrated their horses, by offering to each of 
then a victim, they set out on their plundering ex- 
peditions, in the surrounding country, making lit- 
tle distinction in their robberies, between friend and 

But Poooa is changed. It fell under the power 
of British arms, in 1817. One day the banners of 
ths.Peshwa waved over his palace, and the streets 
of Poona were crowded with the proudest and 
bravest army in India. The next day, that army 
was repulsed and scattered ; the Peshwa, a fugitive 
in his own country, hunted from fortress to fortress 
Kke a dog driven from his kennel. The English 
flag was waving over the royal mansion, and an 
English collector of revenue occupied the palace of 
the. haughty Bajee Row. The oriental magaift* 
canoe of his court vanished in a day ; the native 
town fell into comparative insignificance, and the 
graceful turban, and the stately elephant, and all 
the glittering trappings of Asiatic grandeur, gave 
place to the military cap, the hat, the horse, and the 
less gaudy equipage of the European. All thegreat 
functionaries of the former government were- re- 

ITS IttttmiT OONBITKUr. til 

d«eed to the condition of dependents, or they vot- 
tintarily abandoned their country to seek a better 
fitttime elsewhere, or followed Bajee Kow to his ex* 
jfe. The European cantonments have grown into 
a town, adorned with an English church, laid out 
in elegant streets, which are enclosed with hedges of 
the milk bush, or the prickle pear, with English 
houses, surrounded with beautiful gardens which 
are enclosed with hedges, and yield nearly every 
European vegetable, and every land of tropical fruit 
Poona contains a baaar, which supplies the inhabit- 
ants with every production of the country, and at 
most every comfort or luxury of Europe or Ghina, 
Few places in India, can vie with Poona, for the 
beauty of its situation, or the salubrity of its climate. 

It is still the metropolis of the Deckan. It is 
preferred as a residence, by learned Brahmuns and 
rich natives, and is a favorite resort of devotees ; and 
no less a fkvorite resort for Europeans. All who can 
leave Bombay during the rainy season, take up their 
residence at Poona, The quantity of rain which falls 
here is small, when compared to that at Bombay* 
There is at Poona a Sunskrit college, patronized by 
the government, but wholly under the control of the 
natives. Here Brahmuns are taught their ancient 
and sacred language, which few among the priests 
at this day understand. 

The military force at Poona is necessarily con- 
siderable. It generally amounts to abdut two regi- 
ment* of European infantry, a corps of horse artil : 

919 AHKimnrGCOTB, 

leiy, a corps of engineers, and two or three regi- 
ments of native sepoys. These are all officered 
by Europeans. No native, whatever may be his 
character as a soldier, can hold a commission. 
The number of European soldiers in Poona is about 
9000, and the whole number of European gentle- 
men including officers and civilians, public func- 
tionaries and private residents, may be 306. ' There 
are two chaplains and two churches, and two Scot- 
tish missionaries, who, besides their various labors 
among the Hindoos, preach regularly in English, 
and have a Presbyterian church of a goodly num- 
ber of members/ This is composed of soldiers, and 
such gentlemen and ladies as have been educated in 
the Scottish church, or from preference have since 
joined it. 


Ahmednuggur.— A district of the same name— when formed— taken 
by the English— its ancient grandeur— present state.— Ruin* of 
Mosques — Tombs — Gardens — Aqueducts, — Fortifications in the 
Deckan— Htll forts— Excavated temples— The moral condition of 
the country. — An extensive field for Missionary labor. j 

Ahmednuggur is a town eighty-ttyree miles 
north-east of Poona. It was built by Ahmed Nizam 
Shah, (from whom it seems to have derived its name,) 
in 1493, who made it the capital of an independent 

• This mission has since beeen reduced to one member. 


state of Hie same .name. This dynasty continued 
till the year 1600, when, in the events of revolution, 
it became a province of the Mogul Empire, in the 
reign of die renowned Emperor Acbur. It continu- 
ed under the government of the sovereigns of Delhi, 
till the death of Anrungzebe, in 1707, when it was 
seized on by the Mahrathas, and made a part of the 
Ffeshwa's dominions, till 1797, when he was forced 
to cede it to the Dowlet Row Sindia, when he was 
forced to yield it to the superior claim of the British 
bayonet in 1803. The city was taken by Gen. Welles- 
ley, *he present Duke of Wellington. The fort hasever 
since been retained by the English. The city how- 
ever was ceded to the Peshwa in the following year, 
who seems to have possessed it till the overthrow of 
his empire by the English, in 1817. Since that pe- 
riod it has remained a part of the dominion of 
the Honorable Company, and an important military 
and civil station. From its central position in the 
Deckan, and its proximity to the territories of the 
Nizam of Hydrabad, on the east, k is a place of great 
importance in the defence of the country. It has no 
natural fortifications, nor is there any hill fortress 
in the vicinity; its fort, half a mile from the town, is 
a place of great strength, and capable of sustaining 
a long siege. The town is situated in an open 
plain, which forms, with circular ranges of hills, an 
amphitheatre of about fifteen miles in diameter. 
The population, wealth, and appearance of Ah* 

mednuggur has, within these few years, considerably 
increased. This has been chiefly owing to the 
great accession of merchants, artisans, and laborers, 
who have been drawn thither on account of the 
military force, and the civil corps, which have been 
stationed there. The native population is estimated 
at 50,000 ; and the number of Europeans, including 
about 800 soldiers, is between 900 and 1000. No 
European (with two or three exceptions) lives with- 
in the walls of the town. Their houses, surrounded 
for the most part by beautiful gardens, are scattered 
about the environs of the town, some to the distance 
of three miles, and generally situated on rising 
grounds, for the benefit of a cool and pnre air. Car- 
riage roads have been constructed from the fort, in 
which stands the church, to the dwelling of nearly 
every European. The roads, bridges, barracks, hos- 
pitals, mess-houses, English dwellings, and every 
work of foreign artifice, which has, within these 
few years, been constructed by the English, form a 
singular contrast with the native huts of the poor, or 
the massy, expensive, and uncomfortable houses of 
the more wealthy. These are improvements which 
have added much to the importance of the place. 
Still, Ahmednuggur is far, very far, inferior in point 
of wealth and grandeur to what she was in the days 
of her Mohanjedan masters. Nearly a century and 
a half has now elapsed since those mighty conquer- 
ors possessed the city, and to this day, almost every 


rod of ground bears' some testimony to the grandeur 
Of their dynasty. Palaces, ftiosques, tombs, gardens, 
aqheduets, tanks, public buildings, and private 
dwellings, of great magnificence, are every where to 
be seen, both in the city and for several miles on 
either side ; some in perfect repair, some in ruins, 
and others falling to decay ; but all indicate a state 
of grandeur and wealth which is nowhere to be 
seen at the present day. The most perfect speci- 
mens of the remains are the mosques. and the tombs. 
Some of these are as entire as if they were but of 
yesterday. There are two relicks of Moslem gran- 
deur, which, in particular, demand the attention of 
the traveler. The one is the Palace at Fariah Bhag, 
three miles 'from town, and the other Salabat Khan's 
Tomb, six miles distant, and on the summit of the 
highest hill in the neighborhood. 

The palace, which is an octagon of immense di- 
mensions, stands on an artificial island in the centre 
of a beautiful artificial lake of some acres. The 
lake, again, is in the centre of a large garden, which 
contains three or four hundred acres of excellent 
land, and appears, from the numerous fruit and 
flower trees still remaining, to have been an Eden, 
- in which the eye was regaled, and the taste gratified 
with all the beauty and all the luxury of the East. 
An artificial rivulet, fed from a river at some miles 
distant, watered the garden, and supplied the lake ; 
and fountains were playing at different distances 


from the gate of the garden to the palace, and others 
in front of the principal entrance to it. By whom 
this noble pile was built, at what period, or to what 
purpose it was devoted, does not appear. The 
whole central part of the edifice is a rotundo, ter- 
minating in a vast dome, a little higher than the 
common roof, which is flat, and forms a promenade. 
On the four principal sides, in the second story, there 
are four enclosed rooms about forty feet by twenty. 
The remainder of the building consists of open 
apartments, which look towards the garden, in 
every direction, through arches. There was origin- 
ally neither bridge nor causeway to the palace. The 
only communication was by ^xcater. The present 
causeway is of recent construction. The rivulet 
still feeds the lake, and the garden is still a fertile 
field. The palace and farm, as it is now called, is 
rented by government as a place for rearing silk 
worms, and the manufacture of silk. 

The Tomb of Salabat Khan is likewise an octa- 
gon, and a huge pile of masonry. Above the base- 
ment, in which repose the ashes of the Khan, and of 
some of his family, the structure is three stories high, 
and each story, I should judge, thirty feet. The 
centre, like that of the palace, is one immense arch, 
extending quite to the top of the edifice, and the 
spaces between this arch, or rotundo, and the outer 
wall, form, in reference to the former, three galleries, 
one above another. The whole, though apparently 

AiLABAT KftAff'S TOMB. 217 


naintshed, is a work of great labor and expense, 
and remains a very striking muniment of human 
pride and folly. 

Abmednaggur is surrounded by a wall about 
fifteen feet high, constructed partly of stone and 
partly of sun-dried brides, and is entered by eight 
which are closed of a night and kept by 
. Thie town, like most of the villages and 
towns in the Deekan, presents a most dismal appear* 
anceto the stranger. The streets, for the most part^ 
are narrow, crooked, and dirty ; and the houses low, 
flat roofed, and covered with earth. Grass may be 
seen growing on their roofer, and the sluggish ass 
grazing there, or the roguish goat leaping from roof 
to roof in -search of the best pasture. The Mohamet 
dan* bear a much greater proportion to the Hindoo 
population than is usual in India, There still re* 
mam here a few families of high birth, who hold a 
part of the estates of their forefathers. But in genenft 
they am reduced to poverty and degradation. I 
fcnow not how they restrain their indignation when 
they witness the desecration of the tombs, the tem- 
ples, and the dwellings of their fathers. Many of 
these are fitted up as dwelling* for European*. 
Christians, whom they affeet to despise, proudly and 
thoughtlessly trample on the graves of their ftrthers. 
Others are converted into stables, shops, offices, prirf- 
«ns, hospitals, and manufactories. Even ' the mot* 
humble monuments in theit common burying-place* 


have been leveled to die ground, for the sake at 
the stones* to be used in the * erection of houses 
for Europeans. Their glory has departed. Ishafaod 
is written on every thing which once showed how 
great and how proud the Moslems were. 

I have attuded to the natural fortifications of the 
Deckan. These are too remarkable to be passed an- 
noticed. The Deckan may properly be called one 
immense plain. But it is not unfrequently diversi- 
fied by beautiful rising grounds, varying in height 
and sise, from the little graceful hillock, to the 
mountain of several hundred feet. Most of these 
have a smooth table land on their summits, and the 
larger ones are encircled with a belt of rock just be* 
low their tops. This rock is, by nature, scarped 
Beat ly perpendicularly, so as to render the ascent 
generally impassable, except by artificial means. The 
warlike Mahrathas did not lose sight of this mode of 
defence to their country. Winding or zigzag roads 
are formed on the surface of the hill, by which the 
ascent is comparatively easy, as far as the rocky 
belt A pass is then cut through4he rock, by which 
tten, and sometimes horses could ascend by flights 
of steps to the summit. Sometime* this passage is 
subterraneous, as at Dawlatabad ; in which case, 
jhe strength of the * fort is considerably increased. 
If the sock, in any place, be defective, the breach is 
supplied by a wall. A garrison is posted en the top, 
and batteries planted on the walls. 


SOU, MMf» §10 

A* » description of one of these fortiications is, 
with a few exceptions, a description of the whole} I 
shall only speak of one which I hare ascended and mi- 
autely observed. This is in the vicinity of Juneie, 
forty miles to the north of the city of Poona. There 
is but one path which leads to the summit, and this 
winds nearly half way around the surface of the hill; 
before Beaching the eocirclifcg rock, and is so nar- 
row that two men ean scarcely walk abreast. At 
Boost every foot of this path is exposed to the unob- 
structed fire of the battery above. We woe not 
convinced of the great strength of the place tiU we 
arrived at the gate near the commencement of the 
reeky belt which forms the chief defence of the fort 
As the huge gate, set with great iron spikes, or co- 
vered with thick sheets of iron, grated on its rusty 
hinges, one was reminded of Milton's description of 
fee infernal gate. We then began to ascend the 
steps, and passed successively through five simitar 
gales, all of which seem to bid defiance against any 
power which can be brought to act against them in 
their peculiar situation. Nothing but the weiWi- 
retted shells of the English, could ever have caused 
a garrison, hare to surrender. On the top, are de- 
caying barracks, houses, magazines, and reservoirs 
of excellent water. Nearly all these forts are in the 
hands of the English, but very few of them are 

The excavated temples of this part of the cm* 

try are, pscbaps, still greater objects of curi osi ty to 

*re very numerous. Tbe principal ones «e aft 
Parlay Junere, and Ellora. The latter are tbe 
most magnificent, and are said to be unrivaled by 
any human work on the face of the earth* die pyra- 
mids of Egypt not excepted* Some of these are 
more than a hundred feet in length, by fifty broad, 
and three stories high* As I cannot describe the 
whole, for they are very numerous, and of a great 
variety of forms apd dimensions, I will endeavor to 
give some idea of one hese called Keylaa. This, 
though superior to the others, does not, in its general 
features, greatly differ from them, except that it is a 
temple arfsmatty, as well as internally. That is, 
after the temple was excavated, with doors, porticoes, 
altars, and images, and tbe whole internal part 
complete, the portion of the mountain above it was 
removed, so as to form a temple externally, with 
dome, spire, and court-yard; and the whole one 
eatise piece, and of the same rock, every part re- 
maining unmoved, as nature created the mountain. 
The first object in excavating these temples was, to 
select the side of a hill where was a solid rock, 
without rent or fissure. It was then scarped down 
till there remained a perpendicular ride to the rock 
high enough for the gate-way. Then proceeded 
the work of excavation from the top of the intended 
room downwards, leaving portions of the rock for 

Mft&AL COJMTKW. - 9tl 

pillars of support to the roof, for idols, and any pur* 
pose as. required The pillars are carved and orna- 
mented with figured of men, beasts, and fictitious 
animals. Figures of every description, and some of 
them shockingly obscene, are carved on the walla* 
But it is not my object here to describe the caves, 
but only to tell you that they exist in the Deckan. 
I have said that the physical aspect of the 
Deckan is bleak and barren. Would to God that 
its moral aspect were not more so. Here are tem- 
ples, and priests, and holy places, and altars, and 
v sacrifices, and holy days, and gods many, and lord* 
many ; but no temple is here reared to the worship 
of Jehovah ; no priest, as a good shepherd, brings 
the wandering sheep into the .fold; no place is 
saered to the praises of the Most High ; no sacrifice 
is made to the only living and true God j no day is 
hailed as a welcome cessation from labor, and a day 
of holy rest, when the- soul may find repose on the 
precious promises of God's word. From the cradle 
to the grave, generations after generations of this 
wretched people, worship they know not what, and 
believe they know not why. 

But, blessed be God, there now appears a re- 
deeming spirit for this deluded race. It is not yet 
fifteen years since missionaries were prohibited from 
entering the Deckan. An attempt was made about 
that time, to distribute books and tracts in Poona 

and its vicinity. Two natives, one a Jew, were 



despatched for that purpose. They came to the city 
•f Poona, and then commenced their work. The 
Brahmuus no sooner ascertained the nature of their 
embassy, and the character of their books, than they 
preferred complaints against them to the English 
Collector, the chief magistrate of the city. He ar- 
dently espoused the cause of the Brahmuns, seized 
the books, and imprisoned the missionaries. It is 
mid that he indulged! in the presence of the natives, 
in bitter imprecations against the missionaries in 
Bombay, who were the agents in this affair; and 
told the people that they were greatly abused by this 
attempt against their religion, and assured them theft 
they should have redress. The books wore indig- 
nantly kicked about the streets, and finally sent back 
to Bombay, with the two assistant missionaries, 
under a guard of soldiers. The whole was done, 
no doubt, under the pretence of noninterference 
with the religion of these newly- acquired subjects ; 
and from an apprehension of a revolt, if any at- 
tempts to introduce Christianity should be allowed. 
The pelicy of Government might, at that time, 
seem to require this precaution. But whero is the 
Christian principle which allows a Christian na- 
tion to conquer and to hold possession of an idola- 
trous nation on terms like these ? The Great Judge 
and Disposer of nations will vindicate or condemn. 
He is not an idle spectator among the nations of the 


Poor or five years elapsed before any further 
attempts seem to have been made to introduce the 
gospel at Poona, An attempt was then made by 
the Scottish mission. Two of their number made a 
preaching tour as far as Poona. They preached in 
the streets, distributed tracts, and held public discus* 
siens. Complaints against them were brought to 
the Collector, the gentleman above-named. He had" 
not been sustained by the Bombay Government in 
the violent measures which he pursued in the 
former instance, -and he now saw fit to adopt a" 
snore lenient course. He inquired of the complain* 
ants what the missionaries did, that rendered them 
so offensive — if they resorted to any violence, or 
wed any compulsion in their attempts to propagate 
Christianity? They answered, no; but that they 
talked and argued continually against Hindooism, 
and in favor of Christianity, ami distributed books. 
Well, said the magistrate, I will allow you the 
same privilege. Go talk, and argue, and overthrow 
their religion, if you can. 

Since that period the apprehensions of Govern- 
ment have been greatly allayed ; and missionaries 
have- been allowed to traverse the country in any 
direction they choose. Missionary stations have 
since been formed at Poona, Ahmednuggur, and 
Nassic ; and tours for preaching the gospel, and the 
distributing of tracts and books have been made 
from Candish to Goa, and from the Ghauts to Jalna 


and Sholapoor. These, however, are bat scoutings 
and skirmishings through the enemy's country. Only 
a small part of the towns and villages, have yet 
been so much as once visited by a missionary ; .and 
probably not a fourth part of the population of the 
towns where missionaries reside, has even heard the 
doctrines of the cross. It is better, to consider here 
what remains to be done, than what has been done. 
We will make Abmednuggur the point from 
which, as a centre, we will look abroad over the 
spiritual waste of the Mahratha country. On every 
aide appears a vast moral desert. Looking west- 
ward, we see a single missionary station at Poena, 
eighty-three miles distant Here there is one Scot- 
tish missionary. To the northeast there is the sta- 
tion at Nassic, 100 miles, and two missionaries of 
the church of England. Casting the eye to the 
north, it meets not with a cheering spot, till it stretches 
beyond the confines of India, and not then, unless 
the station at Mongolia should fall in the range. 
Bearing to the northeast,, we find missionaries at 
Delhi, 830 miles ; at Agra, 750 ; at Allahabad, 600 ; 
and Benares, 550 miles. To the east, there is not a 
missionary this side of the Bengal Presidency. At 
Nagpoor, 300 miles, there is a single chaplain, but 
not a missionary till we reach Orissa. To the 
southeast there are no preachers of the gospel, this 
side of Hydrabad. A chaplain resides there, but no 
missionary. At the south we find the first mission- 

aries at Brigaam, 300 miles. Taking the above 
named places, at limits, the ana included can be 
scarcely lew than 800 miles by 1000 equate ; and 
contains a population probably of 40,000,000 ; cm 
feurth of whom speak the Mahratha language. 

Such is the extent of the unevangelized regions 
in the interior, of India ; and, for the most part, com- 
prised within the limits of the Deekan. And it 
should not be overlooked, that many of the plaoss 
named above as limits, may again be regarded as 
centre*^ having about them as wide an extent of 
unevangdieed country as Ahmednuggur. Of the 
thousands of towns and villages comprehended in 
this region of country, by far the greater number 
has never yet been visited by a Christian missionary* 
Previous to the establishment of the American mis* 
sion at Ahmednuggur, in Dec. 1831, members of the 
Scottish mission had, in two instances, made preach* 
ing tours as for east as that city. The gospel has 
now for more than, four years been preached daily 
at Ahmednuggur, and great quantities of tracts, books 
and portions of the Scriptures have been distributed 
both in the city and through the adjacent country. 
More than a hundred and fifty villages in the Ahmed- 
nuggur district have been visited by Christian mis* 
sionaries; three tours have been made into the 
dominions of the Nizam of Hydrabad, as fur east as 
Jalna ; and other tours have been made to the west 
and to the south through the Poona district, and also 


tiwQgh the territory of ttielaja of Sattanu When 
we consider how many village* there ate in the 
Deckan, which have never yet receiv e d a single 
visit from a missionary, and how few of the inhabit- 
ants of those which have been visited, not more pro- 
bably than one tenth, sometimes not a hundreth, ever 
come near the missionary to hear his message, we 
shall again exclaim, surely " darkness covers that 
land, and gross darkness the people." 

If the heart of the Christian sickens when lie 
contemplates the general fret that so vast a popula- 
tion is, in the 19th century, still enveloped in the 
accumulated darkness of ages, and for the most 
part, without the means of being enlightened, how 
much more must his sympathies be enlisted, when 
he looks more minutely into their moral condition, 
when he contemplates the bondage of superstition, 
the abominations, the cruelties, and the general 
wretchedness, which idolatry has, from generation 
to generation, entailed on this mighty mass of human 
beings. The debt which the church of Christ owee 
to these 40 millions is no less imperious, because the 
sufferers do not themselves present their claims. 
The starving, diseased beggar, may not be able to 
plead his case before you in person. But who will 
say that he, on this account, has no claims on your 
eharity, no demands on your humanity? Such in 
(he nature oftheofaim* of the heathen, Thsircry 
for help in beard, in the sad tale of their aiserice. 


Their appeal to your ecftnpassion comas in the dis* 
gosling story of their abominations. 

The simple Act that this extensive inland coun- 
try has, within these few years, been thrown open to 
die labors of missionaries, ought doubtless to be re- 
garded as a divine intimation that the long night of 
death, which has for centuries brooded over this land, 
is now about to disappear, and the Sun of Righteous* 
ness ere long is to arise, and to make this " region 
wad shadow of death," as a city that needeth not the 
light, because the Lord God is die light thereof. It 
ought to speak with a voice that shall thrill the heart 
*f every Christian. 

I have said the whole Mahratha country, and 
perhaps I may say the whole of India, is laid open 
to missionary labors. Missionaries, however, would 
Ml be allowed to reside in every part of the coin* 
try. They may travel, preach, and distribute bodes 
any where, if they have English protection ; and 
they may settle in any part of the Company's pos- 
sessions, with the permission of government, which 
is almost certain to be obtained. In this the native 
inhabitants of the place have no voice. They may 
neither encourage nor wish the missionaries to set- 
tle among them. If the government permit, there 
is no one who can prevent it In this way mission- 
aries may settle any where in the Mahratha coun- 
try, with the same prospect of success as is experi- 
enced, or is anticipated, at PoOna, or Ahmednuggur, 

They hare no obstacles to fear but such as arise 
from the stupidity and the prejudices of the natives, 
and from their aversion to hear the truths of the 
gospel. It is doubtful, in my opinion, whether this 
Held will be open in any other sense, until it shall 
be occupied as it now is. There can, properly speak* 
ing, be no demand for the gospel, in any better sense 
of the term, till it shall be known, embraced, and 
appreciated. Should the door, which in the provi* 
denceof God, is now open to the interior of the Pen- 
insula, not be entered, we know not how soda it 
may be closed ; and years may roll away, and other 
countless millions sink to perdition, before the same 
door shall be opened again. Whether missions in 
this part of the country would be attended with any 
more visible success, than has been experienced in 
other parts of Western India, does not affect die 
question of Our duty, nor is it needful for us to know. 
This is only known, and can only be aflected by 
Him who gives efficacy to means. That die 
gospel should be preached to every cifeature, is a 
simple command, binding en us. We must stand 
or fell in the judgment of onr Divine Master, not 
according to die conversion of every nation, but ac- 
cording to our efforts to evangelize every nation. 
Hence, it may be urged, that guilt attaches itself 
to the Christian world, and to every individual 
{Christian, if every field is not occupied as soon as, 
by the providence of God, it is laid open. 


okigw or tbb wmon. a» 


Mission at Ahmednuggur— its origin— labors.— Death of Mr. Hervey. 
—Removal of Mr. Graves.— First convert— Three Hindoos bat 
tijed— Arrival of Mr. Bogge.— First Monday, Jan. 1833.— Inquiry 
Meeting.— Baptise four natives.— Means employed In the Mission; 

The American mission in Ahmednuggur was 
commenced in December, 1831. The Bombay 
mission had been reinforced the preceding March, 
by the arrival of Messrs. Hervey, Ramsey, and 
Read. A new station was, from that period,' in 
contemplation, but no measures were taken to efiaet 
its establishment^ till the following October, when 
Mr. Allen and myself undertook a tour into the 
Deckan, for the triple purpose of preaching the gos- 
pel, of attending the Missionary Union at Poona, 
^nd selecting a location for the contemplated mis- 
sion. We accordingly visited Kullian, Junere, Se- 
roor, and Ahmednuggur, in reference to the latter 
object, preaching the gospel, and distributing boobs 
in all the intermediate villages. The tour occupied 
five weeks. We traveled four hundred miles, and 
visited aboiU fifty villages. It resulted in the selec- 
tion of Ahmednuggur as the most eligible spot lor 
the establishment of the new station. Junere was 
regarded as a desirable location* but could not be 
occupied for the want of a physician. It is neither 


AftmcAH kubion. 

a civil, nor a military station of the Government, and 
consequently no English surgeon is stationed there. 
We cannot occupy such towns, till we can have 
missionary physicians. 

We found Ahmednuggur a large and an increas- 
ing town. It was once the capital of a large Mu- 
hummudaa kingdom ; and had but a year or two 
previous been selected as a principal civil and mili- 
tary station in the Deckan, second only to Peona. 
It possessed the advantages of a good climate, of 
British protection, and medical aid. It is a central 
position, is situated in the midst of a great number 
of towns and villages, some of which are of consi- 
derable importance. And there were at that time 
several pious gentlemen at Ahmednuggur, who ar- 
dently desired die establishment of a mission there. 
They afforded us all the encouragement in their 

power ; and it is due to Mr. R , the Collector, to 

acknowledge — and I feel a pleasure in the acknow- 
ledgment—that he most cheerfully consented to the 
proposed Mission. He is the same gentleman who 
has been already mentioned as the Collector at 
Poona, when the first attempts were made to distri- 
bute books in that city, whose he adopted a very 
-different policy in reference to Missionary opera- 
tions. His views had changed. He not only con- 
sented to our settlement in Ahmednuggur, but he 
afterwards showed us many kind attentions. 

The Mission having determined on Ahmednug- 


gar, as the location for a new station, Messrs. 
Graves, Hervey,* Babajee, and myself, immediately 
repaired thither. The Mission commenced under 
very favorable auspices. The European resident* 
received us kindly ; and the natives were too little 
acquainted with the nature of missionary opera* 
tions to receive us otherwise. . During the first 
three or four .months, we could preach to large 
. assemblies of natives, wherever we chose, either at 
our own houses, or in any part of the town. They 
were always orderly, and generally attentive. But 
the novelty soon wore away; our object became 
known : the spirituality of the gospel was disco* 
vered ; and, what no doubt was the greatest offence 
in the eyes of the Brahmuns, it was also discovered 
that Christianity and Hindooistn could have no com- 
munion. The uncompromising nature of Chris* 
tianity is, every where, in the opinion of the hea- 
then, its most forbidding feature. 

The Brahmuns began first to treat our instruc- 
tions with indifference, and then with contempt 
On several occasions they abused us in the streets* 
and made our labors by the Wayside, and in the chief 
places of concourse, uncomfortable, and oftentimes 
very trying. They instigated the boys to hoot at 
us, and pelt us with dirt and stones. Babajee was, 
at this time, indefatigable and persevering. His 
labors were indeed " labels of love," for his poor 
aeuntrymeti, and tabots too of patience and afltio* 



tion. These indignities, though aimed more par- 
ticularly at him, did not seem to dishearten him. 
No part of his character exhibits him in a more 
pleasing light than bis conduct towards the perse- 
cuting Brahmuns. When they mocked and reviled, 
he ceased not to reason with them, to warn them, 
and to pray for them. He always reasoned with 
mildness and love, but oftentimes with an earnest- 
ness and pungency which greatly annoyed them. 
Still they could not but entertain for him a sort of 
respect, on account of his stern integrity, and for the 
unabated interest which he manifested in spite of all 
their abuse towards him. They were convinced, 
I believe, that he was a sincere worshiper of the 
eternal and invisible God. 

At this period, Mr. Graves was our principal 
preacher in the native language. Mr. Hervey and 
myself had not then been in the country a year, and 
of consequence had not acquired a free use of the 
native language. Our usefulness was, however, 
greatly increased by our connection with Babajee j 
and his, by our countenance and support. We sug- 
gested, and he preached ; we led the way, and he 
faithfully followed. In his public labors~he could do 
nothing alone. The people would not for a moment 
tolerate him, if he attempted to instruct them in 
public, unaccompanied by a white man. In a more 
private capacity, and in his own house, he did not 
•offer the same inconvenience. But for his greater 

influence here, he was indebted to hie conneotwa 
with the mission. In the present state of Christianity 
in this part of India, no Hindoo convert, who shall 
honor his profession, and manifest a becoming sseal 
for the conversion of his countrymen, would lofig be! 
allowed to exercise the functions of a missionary, 
unless he be under the immediate care of foreign 
missionaries. The supposed connection between 
missionaries and the English government affords 
native converts the protection which they require. 

The daily preaching of the gospel in the town, 
and at our own houses ; our regular studies ; the su- 
perintendence of a few schools ; and a tour to six- 
teen villages in the vicinity, filled up the first five 
months of our residence at Ahmednuggur. Mr, 
Graves was principally engaged in translating the 
Scriptures, and Mr. Hervey and myself in the acquit 
sition of the Mahratha language* 

We had thus far gone on prosperously, begin* 
ning to indulge the pleasing hope that the long 
night of spiritual death, and of the Divine displea- 
sure, was far spent, and that the " day-spring front 
on high" was about to arise on benighted India* 
But alas! how short-sighted is man! He knows 
not what a day may bring forth. In an hour when 
we thought not of it, almost in the suddenness of a 
moment, our dear Brother Hervey was transferred to 
a wider field of usefulness ; to an unfading state of 
glory and beatitude in the heavens f Tooapon*— 

20 # 

tti mJ O MWrn AMD MATH 

»oi for himself, not for the erase of his Redeemer, 

io general, but too soon for us who mourn — was he 
released from the toils and trials of a missionary 
Kfe. Too soon did he quit the scenes which had 
been imbittered but a year before by the death of his 
beloved wife. Too soon did he cease to care for his 
orphan child. His sorrow was turned into joy, and 
he mingles with angels in their song of praise to 
God, and to the Lamb for ever. 

On the evening of the 1 2th of May, the scouige 
of Asia, the scourge, shall I say, which has since 
left its native soil, traversed every nation in Europe, 
and crossed the broad Atlantic, to take vengeance on 
America, because she has not discharged her debt to 
the debased nations of the East, laid her cold hand 
on our beloved fellow-laborer, and marked him for 
ks own. He dined with us at two ; called again at 
half-past five ; changed bis apparel at six ; the cold 
sweat, th0 sunken eye, and the ghastly countenance, 
intimated, at seven i& the evening, that he was the 
sure victim of spasmodic cholera. At nine he was 
neatly speechless. Having taking leave of the 
friends about him, and endeavored, in vain, to kiss 
his little boy, who now started back with honor 
when brought to his dying father, he survived till 
four o'clock in the morning, distorted by spasms, 
and suffering, agonies indescribable. Death, on his 
first approach, surprised him ; but having recovered 
from the first awful shock, his soul became quiet, 


or KB* h«ivzt. M5 

and he apparently quit the tabernacle of clay, and 
entered Che eternal world, with a hope full of glory. 
This afflictive providence still lies veiled in the mys- 
teries of eternity. We only know that it was right, that 
A was merciful and kind in our Heavenly Parent, and 
productive of his glory. We are able to trace, in one 
instance at least, that mercy was here mingled with 
judgment. The wife of Babajee had hitherto been 
a thorn and a vexation to her husband. She had 
withstood him in his profession and practice of Chris- 
tianity, and often grieved his soul on account of her 
blindness of mind, and hardness of heart. Not till 
she saw a Christian die, was she impressed with a 
sense of her danger, and of eternal realities. In a few 
months she was brought to renounce the delusive 
system of her fathers, and to embrace the religion of 
a crucified Redeemer. She was baptized and re- 
ceived into the Mission Church on the 17th of July, 

As the melancholy event of Mr. Hervey's death 
wns accompanied by a joyous one, so this joyful 
event was in its turn accompanied and succeeded 
by a calamitous one. The health of Mr. Graves 
had for tome years been declining. On this ac- 
count he had spent nearly two years on the Neil- 
gherry Hills, but derived no permanent benefit 
It was anxiously hoped that a residence in the 
Deckan would prove tolerable, if not beneficial to him. 
But . we werqt disappointed. His physicians advised 

a removal to a colder climate, as the only probable 
means of preserving his life. He accordingly left 
Ahmednuggur for Bombay the next morning after 
the baptism of Audee, the wife of Babajee, and from 
thence embarked for America. The orphan child 
of Mr. Hervey accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Graves. 


The labors of this new Mission bow devolved 
en Babajee and myself. When we were weak, then 
were we strong. We were not left without a visible 
testimony that God is faithful to fulfil his promises. 
The asylum for the poor, the aged, and infirm, which 
had been established and was supported by voluntary 
subscriptions among the English residents, had, 
from the commencement of the mission, been put 
under our superintendence. This afforded a daily 
opportunity of administering to the souls of the in- 
mates the bread of life, as well as the meat that per- 
ishes. In the months of September and October, 
several of the poor people became unusually atten- 
tive, and gave pleasing evidence that they began to 
care for the things which pertain to eternal life. As 
I was one evening) about the middle of October, re- 
turning from our five o'clock service, pppr lame 
Kondooba followed me unobserved. The audience, 
in general, had that evening appeared unnsually in- 
attentive, and some of the bystanders had treated us 
with open contempt. I had but just sat down on the 
viranda of the house, half in despair, and began to 
relate to the only earthly object abort me, who 


must ntQvntBK. 9S7 

would listen to and appreciate the tale of my trials, 
the circumstances which had just occurred, and the 
abuse which I had received from this ungrateful 
people, when Babajee came up and said, "Sahib, 
here is a man who wishes to speak with you." To 
my inquiry what he desired, he said, "I wish to 
be baptized." I asked him why he made such a re- 
quest. He replied, "I am a great sinner ; my mind is 
very dark, and I wish to be saved through Jesus 
Christ." I asked him if there were no other Saviour 
to whom he could go ; reminding him of the Brah- 
minical expedients in such a case. He said, Jesus 
Christ is the only Saviour ; the Saviour of the world: 
And why are you now troubled about sin, what evil do 
you see in it? He said, " I am greatly pained on ac- 
count of sin ; I deserve everlasting punishment" 
« Do you pray ?" -" I pray for light ; toy mind is very 
dark." I cautioned him against regarding baptism 
as a rite which in itself could save him from sin : 
instructed him more clearly in the rudiments of the 
gospel, and exhorted him to pray much, to hear the 
word of God attentively, and to repent and believe 
on the Lord Jesus Christ without delay, assuring 
him at the same time that I should be most happy 
to baptize him, if it should appear that a work of 
grace was wrought in his soul. As he told me this 
short and simple tale of his heart, my soul blessed 
and magnified the Lord, and took fresh courage. 
This man was of very low caste, and had been 


in the peer»ho«a* about four months, daring whicb 
time he had almost daily heard the word of God ; 
but we knew not that any favorable impreaskm had 
been made on his miod. Hw case, coming to notice, 
as it did, at that particular time, I cannot but regard 
as a kind Providence, to cheer a lonely missionary 
in the hour of despondency, and to show him that 
he is to look only to God for success in his labors. 

I have been thus particular in speaking of the 
ease of this poor man, because he was the first fruits 
of my labors in India. The kind reader will excuse 
' the partiality; and when he surveys .the nakedness 
Of the land, he will cease to wonder that the mis- 
sionary in Western India should, after a residence 
of nearly two years, feel peculiar emotion of joy and 
gratitude, that oft*, and one too so obscure and des- 
picable in the eyes of men, should be brought to 
listen to his instructions, add to inquire after the 
way of salvation. I am happy to add, that this poor 
man, from the period of his first inquiries to the day 
of his death, nearly three years, did not disappoint 
the expectations which were first raised concerning 

4 On the 18th Nov. Kondooba and tw* others of 
the same caste were baptized, and admitted to the 
church, all inmates of the poor-house. The occa- 
sion was one of deep interest. Babajee wept for 
joy. He saw the travail of his soul, and seemed for 
the time to say, " it is enough." We sal down to 

* k 

#• ' 

commemorate the sufferings and death of oar risen 
and ascended Lord. One such occasion ispays the 
missionary for all the sacrifices which he has made; 
We were joined in this interesting scene by Capt 
Sandwich, to whose kindness and Christian atten- 
tions we have been often indebted, and by two other 
officers of the eighth regiment. There were also 
present, as spectators, about a hundred natives. 
Some looked on with apparent interest.; other gazed 
aft at some unmeaning ceremony. Among the for- 
mer were three or four who requested baptism, and 
were regarded by us as inquirers after the truth. 
By them the scene was regarded with deep interest, 
and, I trust, resulted in their good. 

From this time most of the inmates of the asylum, 
with two or three others, became almost constant at- 
tendants at our family worship of a morning. - A 
greater degree of inquiry was excited among them 
during, the month of December. I was for the most 
part of this month absent in the neighboring villages ; 
and towards the end of the month made a tour to 
Chamagonda, and thence westward towards Poona. 
On my return I had the happiness to welcome Mr. 
Boggs as a fellow-laborer. He had arrived in Bom- 
bay from America the September previous. We 
had, for the three preceding months, observed the 
monthly prayer meeting, on the evening of the first 
Monday, in our native congregation, Its object had 
been explained } and at our meeting in Nov. an ac- 


» • 

MO Koran* *E*m umtx: 

' count had been given of the rmsnt success which 
has attended missionary labors in different parts of 
the heathen world, and especially at Ceylon and the 
Sandwich Islands. I assured them that it is the 
practice of all in every country, who love and revere 
the name ef Jesus Christ, to meet on the evening of 
that day, and to offer up to God their tfnited prayers 
and supplications for the outpouring of his Spirit, 
for the whole world, and especially {or the conver- 
sion of the heathen/ And to confirm this, I told 
them that they wQuld, in an hour or two, see our 
pious English frieuds come to our house for that 
purpose. There seemed something in the idea of 
this prayer meeting which not a little excited their 
Curiosity. And the next morning I was told that 
those who had been baptized, and one or two others, 
came to Babajee in the evening, and, referring to 
What I had said, told him that several persons had 
met at our house, for the purpose of prayingjfbr the 
heathen, and asked him if they ought not to pray for 
themselves. Babajee readily assented, and they all 
joined in supplications for the same glorious object. 
The first Monday in January* 1833, I shall 
always remember with the liveliest feelings of grati- 
tude. On that day .God vouchsafed to visit us from 

* I was not then aware how partially this meeting is attended in 
the American churches in general. I had just heard of the Terr ex- 
tensive revivals of religion throughout the United States, and believed 
there mutt he a corresponding missionary spirit Does the present 
appearance of our monthly concerts for prayer manifest such a 
spirit 1 •• 

i _ 



on high with a token of his faithfulness to the pro* 
mise, "Lo ! I am with you." The day had been 
set apart, though unknown to as at the time, by the 
general assembly of the Presbyterian church of the 
United States, and by other bodies of Christians, as 
a day of fasting and prayer for the heathen world. 
I find in my journal the following notice of that day: 
"This has been the most solemn and interesting 
day I have witnessed in India. At our morning 
prayers in the native language, three strangers were 
present, who said they had come to inquire about 
the ( new way.' I found on inquiry, that two of 
these were the parents of a blind man in the asylum, 
who had requested to be baptized. Our son, said 
they, has been blind from his birth, but now he says, 
that ( he can see.' At ten o'clock Babajee returned 
from his morning visit to the poor-house, in an ex- 
tacy of joy, saying ' the poor people all come about 
me, inquiring, what shall we do? They are all 
risen up, continued he, and have their loins girt, 
and are ready.' I appointed a meeting for inquiry 
at three o'clock today, and to my joy and surprise, 


there were sixteen present. A heavenly influence, 
I am persuaded, was with us. Our Christian friends 
in America must be praying for us." 

These meetings for inquiry, conversation and 
prayer, were continued weekly. Among .the inqui- 
rers was the aged mother of Dajaba, who with her 
son had accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Boggs to Ahmed- 



ntiggur, that he might enjoy the friendship and sop- 
port of Babajee, in the trials to which he, as a con- 
vert to Christianity, was exposed. In Bombay, he 
had recently suffered much persecution and abuse, 
and had once been beaten. We also wished him to 
enjoy the instructions of his younger brother in the 
faith, and hoped he would catch the fire of his zeal, 
and be made partaker of the rich spiritual gifts, 
which seemed to be imparted to Babajee. While 
Babajee lived, our hopes were, in a good degree, 
realized. His aged mother had been a stubborn 
idolator; had cruelly persecuted him on his pro- 
fession of Christianity, and openly declared that she 
Would live and die in the religion of her fathers. 
She had some time previously given up her idols ; 
and now she renounced caste ; lost her hatred to 
Christianity, and became, as we hoped, a sincere 
and humble inquirer after the way of salvation by 
Jesns Christ. 

During this month, one of the most promising of 
our inquirers died. He was old and decrepit ; had 
a presentiment that he should soon die, and eagerly 
■ought to be baptized. Late one evening I heard 
that he was more ill, and he begged to be baptized 
before he died. I assented to the request, and ap- 
pointed the next morning for the administering of 
the ordinance if he should not be better. But he 
taw not the light of the morning. . At the dawn he 
was found dead in his room. No one was with him, 

but he was heard in the adjoining room to cry oat 
for Babajee, and to ask some of his neighbors to go 
and call him. But no one would take the trouble 
to go fifty yards to call Babajee or to inform me ! 
He was heard to call on the name of Jesus, and to 
speak of baptism. We trust he had obtained mercy 
through the blood of our Redeemer. We gave his 
body a Christian burial by the side of the child of 
another of our inquirers who died three weeks be* 
fore. The child was buried in the Christian way, 
at the request of the mother. 

On the 10th February, we baptized four more 
Hindoos, one of whom was the aged mother of 
Dajaba. The native congregation was addressed 
on the subject of our creed ; each article explained, 
and compared with the Hindoos' creed. An un- 
usual attention was given during the discourse, and 
the administration of the ordinance. As the little 


church sat around the table of the Lord, it afforded 
a spectacle which angels must contemplate with de- 
light. Here was a beautiful illustration of the power 
of the gospel to unite in one, persons of all ranks, 
complexions and castes. In this little company of 
ten Hindoos, there were persons of four different 
castes ; two Brahmuns, two Purbhoos,. two Mahrat- 
has, and four Mhars. Our hearts rejoiced in the 
wisdom, the power, and the goodness of God, that 
he had suffered our eyes to see and our ears to hear, 
what we this day witnessed. Ride forth, glorious 

t44 hatiyi oorrnts. 

Conqueror! till thou shalt gather in one, all things in 
Christ ; and make all men see what is the fellow- 
ship of the mystery, which, from the beginning of 
the world, hath been hid in God, who created all 
things by and for Jesus Christ. 

Success in his labors can never foil to give the 
missionary among the heathen, the highest degree of 
satisfaction which he can experience. Tet it should 
never be forgotten, that, with this success, come 
some of his most anxious cares, and his severest 
trials. This will appear evident to every one, the 
moment he contemplates the materials from which 
the Mission Church is taken. The convert to Chris- 
tianity is expected to sustain a character diametri- 
cally opposite to the customs and the prejudices, the 
practice and education, the views and the feelings, 
which he imbibed in his earliest infancy. Suppose 
a work of grace actually began in the heart of a 
Hindoo, he may fall into sins for which he would, 
in a Christian land, forfeit his Christian character, 
and still he may deserve our kind indulgence. Sueh 
are the sins of lying and deception, not to mention 
licentiousness and many others. Children are taught 
to lie by their own parents, and of course they feel 
none of those compunctious visitings of conscience, 
which persons, who have been nurtured under the 
restraints of Christian morality, experience when 
they utter a falsehood. A native of India is so ac- 
customed to use truth and falsehood indiscriminate- 

ly, as best suits his convenience or his fancy, that he 
seems almost incapacitated to adhere rigorously to 
the truth. I would not palliate the crime, but would 
pardon the missionary for treating the unfortunate 
creature with indulgence. Even at this early pe- 
riod, we were obliged to discipline one of our mem- 
bers for lying. Being detected, he confessed his 
fault, asked forgiveness, and received admonition, - 

The 4th of March also forms an era in the Ah- 
mednuggur mission. We met on that day according 
to previous appointment, to organize ourselves in a 
church, and at the same time to form a society for 
the promotion of Christian morals. We had here- 
tofore existed as a branch of the Mission Church at 
Bombay. After mature deliberation, we fixed on 
the Presbyterian form of government, as best suited 
to the circumstances of a church among the heathen. 
A brief confession of faith had been prepared for the 
occasion. Babajee had been proposed for an elder 
and Dajaba as a deacon. Having explained the na- 
ture of a community called a church, and the duty ■ 
and privilege of uniting in this capacity, we proceed- 
ed to adopt the articles of faith, and to unite our- 
selves in solemn covenant before God, to aid, com- 
fort and edify one another. Babajee and Dajaba 
were then ordained to their respective offices, by 
prayer and the imposition of hands. 

The object of a moral society was then more ful- 
ly explained, and we proceeded to adopt the articles, 

>2i # 

24t. MOftAL SOCIMT. 

which had been previously drawn up by Babajee, 
and submitted to the different members of the church, 
for the regulation of our moral conduct These rules, 
which maybe seen in the preceding memoir, were read 
article by article, and audibly assented to by all the 
members of the church. They affixed, or caused 
to be affixed, their names to the paper ; and the ser- 
vices closed with thanksgiving to Almighty God, 
and supplications to the great Shepherd and Bishop 
of souls, that he would keep this little flock in the 
midst of this dark, howling wilderness, and make 
them to lie down in green pastures, and lead them by 
the side of still waters. The whole services were 
intensely solemn, and full of interest to all who de- 
sire and labor for the salvation of the heathen. The 
teachers of our schools, the inmates of the asylum, 
and several from the town, were present. Such oc- 
casions, which, to the missionary in India, are "few 
and far between," are, no doubt, designed by a good 
Providence, as a kind of compensation for the trials 
and discouragements of a missionary life. Faithless 
mortals we are, that we tire and faint, if God do not 
almost continually give us some visible token that 
our labors are not in vain. We are not wilting to 
wait, even when we have his word for it, that the 
fcithful ministration of his truth shall never be in 

These were the brightest days of this infant mis- 
sion. A cloud hung over us. Mr. Boggs had but 


recently arrived in the country, and consequently 
could render no assistance in the native language, 
and I was obliged to leave the station for a season, on 
account of the ill health of Mrs. Read. She had 
suffered from the climate almost from our arrival in 
the country, and was now so feeble, that physicians 
said she could not remain in the low country 
during the approaching hot season, except at the 
hazard of her life. It was therefore determined that 
we should go to the high lands in the Mahratha 
country, and there spend the hot months. Our 
sphere of usefulness was not, by this means, dimin- 
ished, but we were taken from a particular field 
where our services at that time were needed. Nor 
was this so much to be regretted, while Babajee, un- 
der the guidance of Mr. Boggs, was prosecuting all 
the ordinary labors of the mission. But alas ! his 
work was almost done ! lie continued to labor with 
unceasing diligence, till about the middle of April, 
when he was seized with the cholera, and died on the 
seventeenth. His death produced a sensation among 
the members of the church, and the inmates of the 
asylum, which, for a time, we feared would be fol- 
lowed by very disastrous consequences. * They 
thought all was lost, and were thrown into despair. 
They supposed the church must be disbanded, and 
the misssion broken up. This is all perfectly cha- 
racteristic of the people, and. bears some resemblance 
to the conduct of Christian converts in another part 

348 mativi ooiivmk 

of Asia many centuries ago. , When their head was 
mixed and taken away from them, " they all forsook 
Him and fled." They gave up all for lost. 

The operations of the mission went on with 
much less change than our native friends had 
thought possible. The poignancy of their grief was 
soon abated, and their hopes revived. The conse- 
quences of Babajee's death, though less disastrous 
than they had supposed, were still of a serious na- 
ture. Our converts were not yet well grounded in 
the faith. In every thing they were but children, 
and needed to be led by the hand. The intimate 
communication between them and us, was now, in 
a great degree, broken off. Babajee had watched 
over them as a father, and had that near access to 
their hearts which it is impossible that a foreigner 
should have. His wife, in particular, had been borne 
on in her Christian course very much by him. She 
now oftentimes became restless and dissatisfied ; and 
in several instances gave us occasion to reprove 
her for unbecoming conduot. She was sometimes 
seen in the streets adorned with a profusion of jew- 
els, and her face and forehead disfigured with hea- 
thenish marks. She generally received our admoni- 
tions with kindness, and reformed of the specified 

HI health in the mission families, and other dis- 
asters, continued to impede the progress of our work. 
During our absence to the Hills our " hired house 91 


burnt, and we were on this account obliged to 
live at an undue distance from our labors, and con- 
sequently were separated so far from our converts 
that we could not exercise over them the necessary 
vigilance. No house could be obtained at that time 
nearer than three miles from the town. 

During the year following, the ordinary opera- 
tions at the station, went on without much interrup- 
tion. In one instance Dajaba was left alone for a 
month, on account of the necessary absence of Mr. 
Boggs and myself. Several tours for preaching the 
gospel were made in the vicinity. One of these 
tours occupied nearly three months, and extended 
far into the interior of the country. In the month 
of February we baptized another Hindoo. Mr. Al- 
len, who had recently returned from America, joined 
this branch of the mission in the same month. He is 
to be employed in itineracies, as far as his health and 
other circumstances permit. In November, Mrs. R. 
and myself were again obliged to leave Ahmednug- 
gur, on account of ill health, with little expectation 
of soon returning. We spent four months in Bom- 
bay, where I was engaged in connection with the 
press, and the mission chapel ; when, with the ad- 
vice of physicians, and the consent of the mission, 
we embarked for America. There are now residing 
at Ahmednuggur Bev. Messrs. Allen, and Boggs > 
and Mr. Abbott, with Mrs. Boggs, and Mrs. Abbott 
Of the different means which have been employed* 


at this station, the direct preaching of the gospel 
has been regarded as by far the most important. It 
is through this that we must look for the salvation 
of the Hindoos. And, surrounded as we are there 
by a numerous population in the vicinity, who have 
never before heard of the gospel of Jesus Christ, we 
have regarded itineracies, as a very prominent de- 
partment of our labors. The whole number of 
tours which have been made by this mission for the 
purpose of preaching the gospel, and distributing 
books, since its commencement, three years ago, is 
sixteen. The distance traveled over, 2200 miles ; 
and the whole number of towns and villages which 
have been visited, two hundred and thirty ; the most 
of which had never been visited by a missionary 
before. Some of these have been visited twice, or 
thrice ; and a few of them even more than this. 

There are two opinions in India respecting the com- 
parative importance of itineracies. The majority of 
missionaries are of the opinion, that this department of 
labor ought, in the present state of missionary opera* 
tions in Western India, to claim the missionary's prin- 
cipal attention ; while others advocate the plan of 
concentrating their labors on a few points. At 
first view this seems plausible. But when we look 
at the character of the field, we see that the concen- 
tration of labor is rather ideal, than real, or practi- 
cable. It can mean very little more than the perse* 
cution, by the truth, of a few gospel-hardened punto- 



(school teachers,) and a few still more hardened 
pandits and domestics. These, with any other na- 
tives who may be in the service of the mission, are re- 
quired, as an indispensable condition of their services, 
to attend at oar place of worship on the Sabbath. This 
is as it should be. They ought, by every fair means 
possible, to be brought within the sound of the gospel. 
And we call this a fair means, because the condition is 
perfectly understood by them before they engage. 
Though they do not attend from any wish to hear the 
gospel, bat generally, on the contrary, feel an aversion 
for it, yet we have the satisfaction of discharging our 
duty to them, hoping, in reliance on the Divine bless- 
ing, that what is now irksome may become a delight; 
and what is now esteemed a calamity on account of 
their poverty, may become their joy and their inesti- 
mable gain. Besides the classes of persons here refer 
Ted to, we have no regular and constant hearers at our 
stations. The number of occasional hearers varies of 
course with times and circumstances. At the Bom- 
bay station, where a person in order to hear the 
preacher, must formally enter a chapel, go up a flight 
of steps and seat himself among the assembly, 
the number of occasional hearers does not prob- 
ably, on an average, exceed three on each Sabbath. 
The number at Ahmednuggur is much greater. Our 
preaching places there are open sheds, by the side 
of a public street, or near some place of concourse. 
As the, people pass and repass, they are attracted to 

369 If ATIT* 00MWM4TMUI8. 

tfte place by seeing the little assembly which these 
who ate required te attend make. They then stand 
without, or enter, as they choose, and come and go 
as they please. In this way oar occasional hearers 
sometimes amount to fifty, sometimes a hundred. ' 

It will be seen from this statement, that we have 
no department of labor which answers to that which 
a parish clergyman enjoys in a Christian land; We 
have, regularly, no voluntary congregations on 
whom we may hope to deepen on a succeeding occa- 
sion, impressions which have once been made. As 
such a state of things has not yet, in the providence 
of God, been brought about ; andjas the country has, 
by the same good Providence, been opened for exten- 
sive iteneracies, I am brought to the conclusion that 
the latter ought to constitute the burden of mission- 
ary labor. The distribution of tracts and portions 
of Scripture, are of course here included ; as this con- 
stitutes a most important and an indispensable part 
of the labors of a preaching tour. 

I do not mean, by these remarks, that preaching 
at one's own station, may ever be regarded as a 
matter of indifference, or of little importance. It 
should always be vigorously sustained — and con- 
stantly, if the number of missionaries and assistants 
be sufficient to sustain it in the absence of those who 
are able to travel. There is only about one third 
part of the year when a missionary can, without 
great hazard of health and life, be engaged in itin- 


* , 

. ssa 

entries. Duritlgdna period, every missionary ought, 
<n my opinion r 4o iflnetate, whether the regular do* 
ties of fcw station be continued or* suspended.' He 
#nly leaves fcr threi or four months', a town where 
ilia efforts hare been expended for eight or nine 
months, in order to preaehin a bend red other town* 
or villages, where he wil) be able to present the gp0» 
-get to a hundred-fold more heathen, alid, oftentimes, 
under greater advantages thafl lie could m the place 
cf his residence. 

The manner of preaching at Ahmedauggur, a* to 
time and place, has been different at different times*, 
Wot several months after our first arrival, we went 
daily into the streets, and into places of coucoftrse, 
each as temples, markets, and travelers', stopping 
places. We here collected large assemblies, and 
generally found them orderly and attentive. Bat 
when the novelty of the thing h§d passed off, and, 
more especially, when the Brahmuns, and the ircflu-* 
ential part of the community, discovered the object 
;of our labors, they made this mode of preaching so 
•. uncomfortable to us, and apparently so useless, thai 
we gradually refincfbiahed it. To suflfer ourselves 
to be treated with indignity, in situations where we, * 
eotitd expect rto redress, when we had othef means 
of accomplishing our purposes, seemed inconsistent 
,w1th the dignity of the^ gospel, or of its ministers. 
Had we complained to the proper authorities, th* 
natives flight affirm that our collecting puWic assem- 



Mies at their temples, or 'to the streets, or near their 
•hops or bouses, was a nuisance We therefore pro* 
cured ground in eligible places, and erected sheds, 
where we appointed religious services on specified 
evenings of the week, and on the Sabbath, We 
went to these places about an hour before sunset, 
and addressed all who came. Here, being on our 
own ground, we could adopt and support our own 
rules ; and we getemlly found it^eufficient to say, 
occasionally, to a company of reckless Brahmuns, 
whb would, not unfrequgntly, come to cavil or 
wrangle, that .they niust remain quiet till the con- 
clusion of the service, when they should have an 
opportunity to propose questions, and to enter into 
a dispassionate discussion if they pleased. Some* « 
times they would remain, but more frequently retire, , 
defeated in the object for which they eaifte* ' 

During the first eighteen mdnths after the estab* 
lishment of the mission, we had a religious service 
in English, of a Sabbath evening. This was attend- 
ed by several pious officers, and civilians, with their 
families. They joined us also ' in the observance of 
the monthly prayer meeting, on the first Monday of 
the month; and in a weekly prayer meeting on 
Wednesday evening. We also preached once a 
week, during much of this time, to an, assembly of 
European soldiers. This service is jstill occasion* 
ally sustained by Mr. Boggs. The expediency,^ 
this measure is, however, at ppsent tfpich to tit 

■• J 

■ * - 

ttlSSlQH SCHOOLS. % 965 

questioned, as thfere is now a ctaplaiu at Abmed- 
iraggur for this duty, Jn his absence, or with his 
approbation) this field might properly and profitably 
be occupied by the mission. 

It only remains to speak of schools. We have 
employed schools in the furtherance of the objects of 
the mission, as far as we thought it could be done 
to advantage We never have entered extensively 
into this mode of, spreading the gospel The num- 
ber of our schools has never exceeded four ; some* 
times but three. The reason of this will appear in 
• what follows. A school taught by a heathen teacher, 
m order to justify its being supported from mis- 
sionary funds, should have a most vigilant super-* 
intendence. It should be visited by the missionary 
daily. It is. needless to say, that & heathen teacher 
will teach Christianity no farther than he is obliged) 
lit order to retain his place. The regulations of the 
school system require, that the children be taught 
Ike- catechism, the commandments, prayers, and 
hymns. These he will of course teach them. Bnt 
this is a heartlfess business. A single word from the 
teacher is, humanly speaking, enough to do away 
any impression which might have been made. It 
should always b# a maxim in our efforts to do good, 
that if we fpnnot do what we wish, we must do? 
what we can. Acting, or rather overacting, ou this- 
maxim, missionaries in this part of India have for* 
merly fallen into an error, in establishing too many. 

aehoefe The consequence w$m, thfct sath. schools 
were left rsry much under the control of tbsir hea- 
then teaches. Some wet e visited by a missionary 
once a week, others once a month, apd others, which; ' 
wBreat a distance, but once or twice a year. Where- 
to the true policy of such a maxim, undoubtedly, ig, 
la have no more schools than can «qjoy a constant 
and vigorous superintendence by lb^ missionary . 
And he should ever bear it in ming, that the direct 
pseaching of the gospel is to be. his most promineat 
duty as a gbepel minister. Acting*, on this principle* 
we have had bat few schools at Ahmednuggur. 
Were it possible, in the first instance, to obtain true 
converts to Christianity as teachers; and, had we 
such teachers,, wete it possible to induce heathen 
parents to domrait tteir children to them, (two sup* 
positions equally impracticable,;) then the system of 
mfasioti schools woujd wear a different aspect., From 
snob schools we should look for the happiest results. 
We shook! look to them as the embryo of colleges 
and seminaries. We should expect, to see the rising 
generation co»e out from sash institutions, if not 
converted, yet freed from many of the prejudices 
and superstitions of their fathers, and prepared to. 
efcert a beneficial influence onr their deluded cow** 
tinmen. Bat the influence . which has ^et been ex* 
erted by our scbojMs is not .perceptible ;. nor can .#• 
espeot any e*Mrc&ive influence to be exerted on Ik* 
present plan, CowW the children be separated fa* 


tbeir parents, b* bapught under the constant ioflsi* 
•nee of the missionaries, and be kept frog* the dft* 
basing influence of idolatry, sanguine .hopes might 
. be entertained of them. All attempts to do this have . 
hitherto proved abortive. , The people most sturdily 
withstand all our endeavors to bring their children 
under an influence so strictly Christian.. 
'. The sad truth is, when the people learn by ex- 
perience, that their children may attend mission 
schools without becoming infected by our religion, 
they have no objection to our educating their fay% 
as they desire to have them educated,. but are ia ^ 
general too poor to defray the expenses themselves. 
But were the discipline of these schools to become 
as strict asl have supposed, and the superintendence 
as vigilant, it is to be feared the parents would im- 
mediately take the alarm, and withdraw their chil- 
dren from the schools. If the schools were of such/ 
a character that they did not believe their children 
aaf* from the contamination, as they lfegard it, of 
.Christianity, they would not, lam persuaded, trust 
them in our schools another day. Our endeavors at 
Ahmednuggur to bring the schools under a more 
vigilant superintendence, and to identify them with- 
our efforts for the conversion of the people, have 
pipvented ip from extending our operations in the 
way of schools, or from constancy keeping up the 
saoall number which I have mentioned. Parent* 
thwo bare otysctad to their obilditn reading Chrts- 

88* - 

IN oo* 

tianbtokfrai the tchoefe* Tbeyrfaywshail mate 
41 the scholars Christians*. And the Brahttunaof 
the town will not engage a* teachers, and use their 

. influence to prevent othets from? engaging in oiit 

There is another reason why the number of 
mission schools is small at Ahmednnggitr* These 
are three large sctoob in that place, supported by 
*e English Government These school are frcp \ 
the teachers well paid, and the boys are supplied 
With book* "of a description well surtied to the vitiated 
iaste of a Hindoo. And wiiat is still more perplex* 
iag to the missionary, they tire formed on that prii*. 
ciple of Jeferafien* of #hieh I have elsewhere spcfc 
ken ; and the sch6Urs stem to regard ii as the** 
rigfUy as if they hnd the ssnfctidn of Ckmrnintift* 
to abuse Christian bookstand missionaries, wi*r* 
errer they meet tbetfe, Out Mtfpian at Ahmednng.* 
gar have, probably, before 4his tine, mcwfct iatifesd 
tie Government on this Subject, and 4bey wiH, k in 

^ btehe ved, get redress. These Go wMnani schools* 
form one of the greatest obstacles with. Which we* 
have to contend, especiaHy in onreflbrts-ftr &e«tar 
cation of the people. 

Female education is in many respects * mattes 
inciter to be desired by a mission, then the education 
of boys. Besides the mental iaprovemen^in eitfees. ^ 
oane^ the education of the feibale 4ex strifes* at jot: 
inveterate i^ejndiee, and hpfinn rin nliiisiMiiilKi^wl 

_J A 

(If ielfl *f WtevpriM off 

. the Hindoo woman. On this accotint r we have* 
teen partitinlady faifoufr to establish and swpport 
finite schools. Were suoh-sehoob merely of at 
lilfliary character, an iitoportaikt object is gained naf 
rastAintng tfaefe. There ate^ however, the saoid 
Hawbacks in the prosecution of this part of our sys* 
tecA of schools, ats have beefc mentioned in reference 
to hoys' schools ^together wrtfc ah additional one, of 
still greater difficulty : I mbaft the want of any de-* 
Aire on the part of parents, to have their girls eduM 
cated. They fear it as a calamity; but submit to if 
a« account of the pecuniary benefits which will ac- 
crue by way of presents, and otherwise. Where 
fiarfcale sehoals have become common, as is the case 
in Bombbyy the children, doubtlesb, feel a degree of at- 
tachment to thWr schools ; and some of them attend 
attti learn, not by restraint, but with pleasure, And 
their fathers, dot unlikely, feel gratified with theft at- 
tainment^ and. wish them to continue in school tttf 
claimed by their husbands, at the age of afcoiit t wel vo 
years. Yet if additional pay were not gfren to fh* 
Jeaeber of a female school, and ptaftenti to the girts itf 
general weientt held Out as inducements' to regular 
and prompt atte&daucey there wtankl not, ^rob&blf, bar 
tfcjtaale sobool, a*er thrfce mofrths, in this part of In*f 
<Ji*. In aeftud*M*witk this plan, .which is probably 
tbfconly feasible One, tfe have*rot*ii^a>few feinafe 
'zrtboti* id JUtfatfhniggii*. Thqw bavfe been ^OfM 



ported by die contributions of the Vtgtfeb ladies at 
the station. The tide of popular fmliag, which front • 
their origin existed again* them; the iH heahh v { 
the ladies of the mission ; and the complaints which 
the girls began to make for " mote pay,* bad, when 
I left India, reduced the number of these schools Jo 
a single one. A reaction may soon take place, add 
a system on a more extensive and improved plan 
may be adopted. If the day of India's regeneration, 
is, as we hope > at hand, it must appear in the eleva- 
tion of her sable daughters, from eueh depths of 

We have an English' ashooi at Ahmedouggur 
for beys, which is taught by a Mpssulman, and at- 
tended by lads of djflerent castes, as flmdoos, Me- 
hnmmudans, and Jews, They are> for the most 
part, very sprightly boys, and the school promises 
success. The natives of India are very, desirous to 
learn the English language, and fathers wish lo 
have their sons educated in it. Their object, in 
general, is neither literature, science, a tare of study, 
nor religion— but money. If thfey havfe a know- 
Iflflge of the English language, they may obtain 
some lucrative "situation in the service- of govern- 
ment. Such a school will serve to show the people 
that we are their friends, and are wilting to aid them 
whenever we can, m their temporal, as #ell4aln 
their epirif&al concert*. Audit affords, ** say the 
least, as good an opportunity, t»* Jlehittt* school, * 

• « 



ftt - the eoiMMicatien of religious infraction. It 
is much to be regretted that religious exef rises could 
not have beeu iftt*educed into this school from its 
demafenedment, and Afterwards Sustained. Had the 
s»periateodent adopted this desirable coarse} ho 
would not hare been aUe to obtain Ave boys. 

The foHowhig anecdote will show how exceed* 
ingfy sensitive fee people at Ahmednuggur were, at 
thai time* on the subject of Christianity. The 
school contained about thirty scholars ; but in a day 
otf two it was redmed ie fifteen. The cause of the 
sudden decrease wad this : the boys had been sup* 
plied, at a very low prise, 'with the American Sun- 
day School Spelling-books. Spelling-books, oa ac- 
count of th^ir scarrity, and the. demand created by 
thd great desire to learn English, are much sought 
after; and consequently the boys were much pleased 
when they obtained jhenu After a few days, they 
discovered that these boots #ere of a religions cha- 
racter ; and the Hindoo boys forthwith left the 
sehdols, without assigning any reason* A few days 
dfcer, some of these Jboys called on a ntember of the 
Mission, who inquired why they had feft the school 1 
They replied, thai the new speHiftp-books contained 
, something about Jesus Christ, atid, on that account, 
they saidt they souI4 hot use them. They were 
astogd to peitrt out any thing in the books Which 
. tfaey thought otijeetieaatble ; and thsy hsppepted to 
♦ dpea at a place where it was written— u Jesus said to 


them, Gome unto me ell ye that labor-and aie Ijeary 
Men, and I will give you reek" 

The contemplated seminary, or boarding-school, 
which was noticed in the Report of the Board 
for the year 1833, has not yet gone into opera- 
tion. The plan, wore it practicable, would pro* 
arise success. It & to take cbildfen from their 
parents, when ■ about five years old, and to lodge, 
feed, clothe, .and instruct them, exercising over 
them parental care. The theory is good ; but 
the measure, as yet, seems premature. Respectable 
natives will not put their children so much under 
our control j and it is not thought expedient to com- 
mence the school, with outcasts, or persons of low 
caste, as this would virtually shut out all others. 
The stroog-hokl of caste must first be loosened, or 
the people must see themselves compelled to such a 
course by poverty, or they must .feel the influences 
of Christianity on th*r hearts,* before they will 
yield to such a measure. How< soon the latter mo- 
tive will influence them, is known only to God ; but, 
if an angel of deliverance do got apring up froria? 
dtytyg quarter, frightful poverty will soon drjve the 
people of Iridic to desperation. Should He who di- 
rects the hearts, and governs the actions o€ all men, 
bring them, in their extremity, to those who, tfl*hi* 
providence, are sent thither to succor the distressed, 
then hundreds and thousands may flock jto the miir 
, sionaries, ^vc up their children to be sworted and 

. ». . HO*E IfOB POOE U&ULS 203 

educated, and- give: up themselves to serve the 
. Father of all their mercies.* 

Sometimes, 1 seem to see this happy, day arrived. 


But again, featilfy* that devoted India has not yet 
drunken her full *c up of, Divine wrath, I see the 
work*>f oppression still going on, till the high and 
the tow, the weak and the strong, in their desperate 
struggle — some for pride, aid more for the bare ne- 
cessities of life — devour and be devoured. The nu- 
merous bands of marauders which still infest every 
part of the country, afford the* desperate every faci- 
lity for such an awful enterprise/ A ehange must, 
ere Idhg, take place; While the Divine mercy is 
Withheld, or the Divine indignation is suspended — 
t while the cloud which hangs over India does not 
burst, we will hope it is a cloud* of mercy. It looks 
black; it is streaked with vivid lightnings;, a 
threatening voice is heard ; jet these may be but 
the awful manifestations of Omnipotence, coming in 
mercy, but displaying the fierceness of his counte- 
nance to a people who have so long abused his 
mercy, and trampled his honor in the dust** While 
we hope that the change which is working in India 
will, in the providence of God, be overruled for her 
spiritual, deliverance, we ought to labor and pray, 
relying on the sure promises of God that the fervent 
payers, and the faithful labors of his servants, shall 
never be in vain. We ground our hope on the' 
broad fouejjation of the Divine promises. Their 

* » 



fblfilmeot may be deferred, but they <caooot foil. 
The kingdom, and. the domtaipn, *nd tbe greatness 
of tbe kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be 
given to the people of the saints of 4he Meet Hi] 
whose kingdom shall be an everlasting kit 
and all dominions shall serve and t*ey him. 

EN* op vol. I. 



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